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Full text of "Joseph Haydn : Orfeo ed Euridice (L'anima del filosofo) : dramma der musica, London, 1791"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 with funding from 
Wellesley College Library 



http://archive.org/details/josephhaydnorfeoOOhayd 



JOSEPH HAYDN 

ORFEO ED EURIDICE 

(L'Anima del filosofo) 

Dramma per ! Musica,' London, 1791 
Libretto by Carlo Francesco Badini 



ANALYTICAL NOTES 




HAYDN S O C 1 ET Y • B OS T ON 

- Copyright 1951 



THE CAST 

ORFEO Herbert Handt (Rome) 

EURIDICE Judith Hellwig (Vienna State Opera) 

CREONTE Alfred Poell (Vienna State Opera) 

GENIO Hedda Heusser (Zurich Municipal Opera) 

PLUTO Walter Berry (Vienna State Opera) 

FIRST CORISTA Richard Wadleigh (Alassio) 

Second, third, fourth Coristas, Baccante etc., members of the Akademie 

Kammerchor, Vienna 

. , . , . , „ . . f H. C. Robbins Landon (Vienna) 

Musicological Supervision: [ ^^ wirth (Hamburg) 

Collation of Italian Text ] _. , , _._ „ . , 

,. } Richard Wadleigh 

Supervisor of Recording Sessions J 

Technical Supervision: Josef Duron (Vienna) 

Cembalo and Correpetition: Kurt Rapf (Vienna) 

The Chorus of the Vienna State Opera 
The Vienna State Opera Orchestra 

Conductor: Prof. Hans Swarowsky (Vienna) 

Analytical notes copyright 1951 by Helmut Wirth 
Libretto Translation copyright 1951 by HAYDN SOCIETY, INC. 



r 



CATALOGUE OF THE OPERAS OF HAYDN 

OPERAS 

Acide e Galatea, Festa teatrale (Giovanni Battista Migliavacca) (1762) 
(Preserved only in incomplete Autographs) 

La canterina, Intermezzo (1766) 

Lo speziale, Dramma giocoso (Carlo Goldoni) (1768) 
Le pescatrici, Dramma giocoso (Carlo Goldoni) (1769) 
L'infedeltà delusa, Burletta (1773) 

L'incontro 5 improwiso, Dramma giocoso (Karl Friberth) (1755) 
La vera costanza, Dramma giocoso (Franzesco Puttini & Pietro Travaglia) (1776) 
II mondo della luna, Dramma giocoso (Carlo Goldini) (1777) 
L'isola disabitata, Anzione teatrale (Pietro Metastasio) (1779) 
La fedeltà premiata, Dramma giocoso (1780) 

Orlando Paladino, Dramma eroicomico (Nunziato Porta) (1782) 
Armida, Dramma eroico (Jacopo Durandi) (1783/4) 
Orfeo ed Euridice (L'Anima del filosofo), Dramma per musica (Carlo Fran- 
cesco Badini) (1791) 

SINGSPIELE, ETC. 

Der krumme Teufel, Singspiel (Felix Kurz-Bernardon) (1751?). Lost 

Der neue krumme Teufel, Singspiel (Felix Kurz-Bernardon) (1758?). Lost 

La Marchesa Napoli (1762). Only tiny fragment extant 

La vedova (1762). Lost 

II dottore (1762). Lost 

II Sganarello (1762). Lost 



MARIONETTE OPERAS 

Philemon und Baucis (1773) l ) 

Die bestrafte Rachgier oder Das abgebrannte Haus. Lost 
Didone abbandonata (Dido) (1777). Lost 
Genovevens vierter Teil (1777). Lost 



1 ) Discovered in an old MS in Paris by Dr. Jens Peter Larsen in 1950; believed to 
have been lost up to that time. A fragment exists in Haydn's own handwriting in Berlin, 
Staatsbibiliothek. 



THE RECORDING 

The preparation of Haydn's last opera for recording was without doubt the most ambitious task thus far 
assailed by the Haydn Society, for not only was there no score, no orchestral parts, no piano reductions for the 
singers but also no tradition in practical execution, as was the case with the Haydn masses, symphonies, con- 
certi, etc. The Society had to prepare Haydn's score from several sources spread over Central Europe. It was 
known, of course, that Orieo existed. The elder generation of Haydn scholars believed that the work was 
left in an unfinished state; this belief originated from the fact that Breitkopf & Hârtel published a set of ex- 
tracts in full score and piano reduction with the highpoints of the opera, so to speak (Euridice's death, 
the final scene of the last act, Creonte's E major aria and several arias of Orfeo and Euridice together with a 
selection of the choruses). It was therefore presumed that this was all that remained of the opera, and this theory 
seemed doubly plausible in view of the fact that the opera was never performed. However, Botstiber, the bio- 
grapher chosen by Breitkopf to complete the unfinished biography by C. F. Pohl, investigated the Autograph 
in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, and came to the correct conclusion that the work was "nearly com- 
plete". Karl Geiringer (see Joseph Haydn, Potsdam, 1932) studied the Autograph even more thoroughly 
and also came to the conclusion that the work was not at all unfinished. What none of these scholars knew, 
or could have known — the archives of Prince Esterhâzy being then closed to musicologists except by special 
permission which was usually not granted — was that an "authentic" copy of the Autograph in the hand- 
writing of one of Haydn's copyists 1 ) existed in Budapest containing one secco recitative (before Creonte's big 
C major Aria) and several arias not found in the Berlin MS. These arias were probably torn out of the main 
body of the Autograph and sent to Breitkopf for publication. What was also not known until the Haydn Society 
began its intensive research on the subject was that the Autograph was in many cases in no particular 
chronological order; nor, for that matter, is the Budapest source. For example, the first chorus ("Ferma il piede, 
O Principessa") was found in the second act, after the death of Euridice, where it could not possibly fit 
into the text (Euridice sings with the chorus, who tells her to flee from the forest into which she has wan- 
dered). An examination of the Budapest MS showed that the opening scene of the opera (Euridice alone) 



x ) The same handwriting is found in the British Museum, Symphony No. 98 (cat: Royal Philharmonic Society 136). 



leads directly into the chorus, forming the first "number" of the opera. In addition, it was maintained 2 ) that 
the fourth act included no aria, as an examination of the Autograph must have shown. The other MS showed 
that one of the arias missing in the Autograph should be sung by Orfeo after the Genio sees that Orfeo has 
not kept his vow and has cast a glance at his loved one. Perhaps the most beautiful aria of all, Orfeo's scene with 
solo harp, is missing in the Autograph and was restored only through the Budapest MS and the Breitkopf score. 
Still another problem was the libretto, of which no copy outside of the Mss existed. Richard Wadleigh and Julia 
Wadleigh worked intensively for nine months on this difficult problem, whereby, for these analytical notes, the 
entire text had to be prepared and translated. The chronological order of the opera had been established before 
the arrival of the Budapest manuscript, and it was a matter of considerable pride to find that the conjectures of 
the Haydn Society's Viennese staff had, in every case, proved absolutely correct. A critical proof of our sugge- 
stions has now been established through the fact that the Hungarian source included references "Scena IV, 
Act I", "Act I, Scena 3ta", which were totally lacking in the Autograph. The one missing recitative in the 
Autograph was found intact in the other sources, so that it is now possible to present Haydn's great master- 
piece complete and in its correct chronological form. 

For purpose of critical interest, the work was prepared from the three sources as follows: 

Act I 

Ouverture Autograph only 3 ) 

Recitativo and Chorus (Euridice) Autograph, Budapest, Breitkopf 

Recitativo Accomp (Euridice) Autograph, Budapest 

Aria (Euridice) Budapest, Breitkopf 

Recitativo Secco (Corista, Euridice, Orfeo, etc) Autograph, Budapest 

2 ) Geiringer, ibid. pp. 116, „Der 4. Akt . . . enthàlt bezeichnenderweise auBer Secco-Rezitativen und einem kurzen Instrumental- 
stuck 6 Chornummern, doch keine einzige Arie". 

3 ) The Ouverture is questionable. It was composed during Haydn's second London sojurn for his impresario, Johann Peter 
Salomon, who wrote an opera called "Windsor Castle", for which Haydn supplied this Ouverture. In Haydn's Entwurf Catalogue, the 
Ouverture is entitled music for an English opeia 1994 (he means 1794, of course). The fact that the main theme of the presto occurs 
elsewhere in Orfeo does not prohibit the fact that it might have been written either with the ideas of Orfeo fresh in his mind or actually 
for the opera itself, but it seems doubtful in view of the character of the music. It is included in this recording with the warning that 
listeners should bear in mind the circumstances surrounding its composition. (See also Karl Geiringer, ibid. pp. 89, and Larsen, Drei 
Haydn-Kataloge, Copenhagen, 1941, last page of Entwurf -Katalog.) 

8 



Aria (Orfeo) 

Recitativo Secco (Corista, Euridice, Orfeo) 

Chorus (Men only) 

Recitativo Secco (Corista, Creonte, etc) 

Aria (Creonte) 

Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Euridice, Creonte, etc) 

Duet (Orfeo-Euridice) 

Act II 
Chorus (Amorini divini) 
Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Euridice) 
Chorus (with Orfeo & Euridice) 
Recitativo Secco (Corista, Euridice) 
Recitativo & Aria (Euridice Death Scene) 
Recitativo & Aria (Orfeo) 
Recitativo Secco (Corista, Creonte) 
Aria (Creonte) 

Act III 
Chorus ("Ah, sposo . . .") 
Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Creonte) 
Chorus (Da capo of above, shortened) 
Recitativo Secco (Creonte, Corista) 
Aria (Creonte) 

Recitativo Secco (Genio, Orfeo) 
Aria (Genio) 
Recitativo Secco (Orfeo) 
Chorus 
Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Genio) (Chorus da Capo) 



Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 

Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 



Autograph 



Budapest, Breitkopf 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest, Breitkopf 

Budapest 

Budapest, Breitkopf 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest, Breitkopf 
Budapest, Breitkopf 
Budapest 



Autograph, Budapest 

Autograph, Budapest 

Autograph, Budapest 

Autograph 

Autograph 

Autograph 

Autograph 

Autograph 

Autograph 

Autograph — 



Act IV 



Chorus (delle Ombre) 

Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Genio) 

Coro di Furie 

Recitativo Secco (Orfeo) 

Chorus, Recitativo Secco, Balletto 

Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Genio) 

Chorus 

Recitativo Secco (Genio, Euridice, Orfeo) 

Recitativo & Aria (Orfeo) 

Recitativo Secco (Orfeo) 

Coro di Baccanti 

Recitativo Secco (Orfeo, Baccante) 

Finale 



Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 

Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 
Autograph, 



Budapest, Breitkopf 

Budapest 

Budapest, Breitkopf 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest 

Budapest, Breitkopf 

Budapest 

Budapest — 

Budapest 

Budapest, Breitkopf 



For purposes of recording certain alterations and supplementations of Haydn's often meagre indications 
of phrasings, dynamic marks, and even instrumentation had to be made. A few of the major musicological 
questions are listed here with our solution. In the entire work, it is not quite clear when Haydn intends the 
bassoons to act as part of the Continue» and when he intends them to be silent. For Creonte's C major aria at 
the end of the second act Haydn gives no separate parts for the bassoons, but it is almost certain that, ac- 
cording to his own wishes as expressed in the famous Applausus letter, 1 ) the bassoons should double the 
bass part. The same applied to several choruses. In the Recitativo Secco in the fourth act "O signor . . ." 
Haydn's Autograph and the Budapest copy omit the last three bars of the bass line; while it is possible that 
this is intentional, the absence of rests seemed to indicate that Haydn simply forgot to write in the part for 



1 ) Original in Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 



10 



cembalo and strings; this was supplied by the editors. In measure 32 of Orfeo's F minor aria, both the Breit- 
kopf score and Budapest MS (the aria is missing in the Autograph) have the following: 




Violins 
Oboes- 

Clarinets 
iB\>) 

[Via 8 va ] 

Bassoons 

Bass 

By changing the violin part marked X to f, we believe that Haydn's original intention is once more clear. 

The opening chorus of the third act contained various gaps in the vocal parts which were obviously not 
filled in for lack of time and were able to be supplied without difficulty. 

For the recording two additional problems arose. One concerned the solo English horns which appear in 
Euridice's death scene. Haydn writes, during the last few bars, a series of notes which simply cannot be played 
on any English horn, then or now. The Society, therefore, used a bass oboe for these few measures; the diffe- 
rence in tone colour is scarcely noticeable. The second problem concerned the use of the Baroque harp, which 
was obtained through the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, to whom we are most grateful. For the unaccom- 
panied recitatives, we used one cello and one contrabass in addition to the cembalo (Ammer, Eisenberg; 
I-single 8'; II- 4', 8', coupler.). A chorus of 48 voices was used. The solo parts, called "Corista" by the composer, 
who come forward in the recitatives were members of the Akademie Kammerchor of Vienna. The following 
number of strings were used: eight first violins, six second violins, five violas, four violoncelli and four contra- 
bassi. The opera was recorded during December, 1950 in the Mozartsaal of the Konzerthaus in Vienna, Austria. 

Vienna, Austria. 

December, 1950 H. C. Robbins Landon 

Secretary General 



il 



THE OPERAS OF JOSEPH HAYDN BEFORE "ORFEO" 

by 
HELMUT WIRTH 

Joseph Haydn spent more than five decades of his life — he died at the age of 77 — in writing an incredible 
number of works. The scope of his gifted creations extends from the end of the Baroque period through the 
period of "Storm and Stress" and the French revolution directly into classical German music, even 
as far as the early stages of the romantic period. It was half a century of highest spiritual tension in which his 
life was spent. However, it took long enough before people again remembered the one-tiane adored composer. 
In the 19th century it was thought that they could casually earmark him as a pleasant jester and, at the most, 
consider him as the necessary but more or less insignificant precursor of Mozart and Beethoven. Today, at 
least, there are many indications that Haydn is being recognised as an instrumentalist of high rank, although 
only a few of his compositions are performed in public: his London Symphonies and some string quartets, which 
were created at the turning point of the 18th and 19th century. Also the two oratorios based on Hàndel, i. e. "The 
Creation" and "The Seasons", belong to the essential repertory of our concert life because of their complete 
penetration of religious sentiment. That all these creations, however, are basically only the ultimate crystalli- 
zation of a tremendous process of development, that they must, in a way, have been fought for in a long life of 
ever increasing experience and in a continuous sublimation of the spirit, this is something which the public has 
not quite realised until today. Among the most important stations on this long way leading to perfection are 
apart from numerous symphonies, quartets, sonatas and many other works of all kinds, also the dramatic crea- 
tions of the master. Extremely little is actually known about his compositions for the stage and their signi- 
ficance for the development of the opera. Only a few of his operas have up to now been torn out of oblivion, and 
these have not found an established place in the operatic repertory. To this it must be added that the theatrical 
works of Haydn have an important place in his inconceivably large legacy. It is difficult to see in them as impor- 
tant links im the progress of musical drama, although each one is, so to speak, sufficient unto itself and as a 
whole they show as such all advantages of the composer; it would be quite wrong to classify them as unimpor- 
tant, secondary products, for in these works Haydn develops his personal style to an ever increasing maturity 

12 



and completeness. Thus the opera can claim a highly important part in Haydn's creative work. Almost through- 
out his whole life, the opera accompanies him and fills him with a pride which seems fully justified to us 
as his heirs; and yet no one knew his limitations in that sphere better than he himself. His biographer, Griesinger, 
writes: "Haydn observed at times that he ought to have written more lyrical music, for he could have become 
one of the first writers of operas", and in Phillipp Christoph Kayser's book, "A little of and about Music for the 
year 1777", we read the following sentence: "Haydn has as yet written little for the stage. He could do it, if he 
wanted to". In comparison to this we have Haydn's letter from the year 1787 to the Provincial Chief Admini- 
strator Roth in Prague, which is a good testimonial for the stern criticism Haydn exercised on his own person 
and for his humanitarian feeling. As Roth demanded an Opera butia from him, Haydn wrote he could not oblige 
him, "because all my operas are tied down too much to our personages (at the court of the Esterhâzys), and would 
moreover never produce the effects which I have calculated for the locality. It would be a completely different 
matter if I would be so inestimably favoured to compose a completely new book for the theatre there. But 
even this involves a great risk, as the great Mozart can hardly allow anybody to stand by his side." 

Before Joseph Haydn became conductor at the court of Prince Esterhâzy, he had already in Vienna, when 
19 years old, made contact with the theatre. The famous Viennese comedian, Joseph Kurz, who called himself 
Bernardon and enjoyed a great reputation as a writer of farces, invited him to write the music to his German 
play, "The Limping Devil" [Der krumme Teufel]. The libretto was based on the novel, "Le diable boiteux", by 
Lesage. However, after having been performed twice this piece was prohibited because of its rather vicious 
references. Seven years later it was again produced in a new form and entitled "The new Limping Devil" [Der 
neue krumme Teufel]. The music to these two "comic operas", as they are called, no doubt with some exag- 
geration, has unfortunately been lost. It was within the frame-work of the Singspiele performed at that time 
and probably had no salient charateristics since Haydn was still very young and, in opposition to Mozart, 
needed a long time to form his style and, moreover, had not as yet a particularly salient individuality. In any 
case these experiments awakened the interest of the young composer for the musical stage and strengthened 
his confidence in the application of music as a means for reproducing theatrical effects. If the disappeareance of 
the music to these sung plays is regrettable, it is still more so in the case of the puppet operas which were 
largely performed at that time. These works were already composed in the course of the Esterhâzy period. 
At least we know the names of some of these operas: "Genovevens vierter Teil", "Dido", "Philemon und Baucis", 

13 



etc. The latter is preserved in a contemporary MS in Paris as well as two small autograph fragments. With the 
exception of "L'Anima del filosofo", all other Haydn operas were created for the house of Prince Ester- 
hâzy. As Haydn commenced his duties there in 1762, both the orchestra and available singers were exceedingly 
small in number. This, of course, considerably cramped his style and led to the relatively small range of 
effect of the early Haydn operas. The operatic repertory of the princely house showed a deep-seated dependency 
upon Vienna. Haydn himself probably selected the works during his short seasonal stay in the Vienna 
residence, taking into due consideration the princely liking for comic operas. Although the French Opera 
Comique, and the Singspiele in the style of Leipzig and Vienna dominated more and more, they were unable 
to replace the Italian Opera butia, which had its principal representatives in Galuppi, Piccini and Paisiello. Also 
the Opera seria, which for a short time flourished again through the attempts of reformation made by Jom- 
melli and Traëtta, was so firmly established in the theatrical life that even Gluck did not succeed in breaking 
its predomination immediately. In general, Haydn mainly created buffo-operas. Of course, the Opère série 
stand at the beginning and at the end of his dramatic career. We will see how seriously Haydn took the 
Opera butia in later years and how a number of sociological and humanitarian trends can be found in the 
works which have remained on the territory of the traditional Opera butia, at least in their exterior appearance. 
For this reason Haydn's operas must be considered here in their chronological sequence. 

In 1762, three years after having composed his first symphony, Haydn composed his first Opera seria, 
"Acide". The picturesque text of the libretto writer, Migliavacca, who is very close to Metastasio, gave him 
rich opportunity to experiment in descriptive sound effects as far as this can be seen from the Autograph, 
which has only been preserved in fragments 1 ). The overture shows the typical cut of an Italian operatic Sinfonia 
and also does not exceed the prescribed number of measures in its thematic content. [Ex. 1], A striking 



(7) Allegro 




x ) Partly in the Bibliothèque de L'Opéra, Paris, partly in the Staatsbibiliothek, Berlin, and partly in the Esterhâzy archives in 
Budapest. 

M 



example for Haydn's early art of description is the scene in which Galatea learns about the death of Acide. 
[Ex. 2]. The opera treats the Acis and Galathea theme, which was also used by Handel, and which can be best 



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classified under the "favola pastorale", the pastoral narration. In the sense of the old Neapolitan opera, it is 
always the same theme which recurs, the same formulas, the same scenes and the likewise well-known "lieta 
fine", the happy end, which consoles all opera goers. In "Acide" the hero of the same name, having been 
killed with a rock by the giant Polifemo, appears in the last act as mountain spring, to join in the final quar- 
tet! Considerations of stylistic nature and of the locality forced Haydn to renounce the chorus, which was 
so successfully used by Hândel. 

Haydn's next creation for the stage was a comic opera, La Canterina [1766] 1 ). This was indeed no Opera 
buffa in the usual sense of the word, but an Intermezzo, which was also very popular and which we can meet 
later in Mozart's "Impresario", Cimarosa's "L'imprésario in angustie" or Lortzing's "The Opera Rehearsal". 
The basic character of Haydn's work is purely parodie. He remains a parodist up to a point of persiflaging 
himself. For Haydn not only makes fun of the Opera seria, but he also mocks his own beginnings with the 
"Acide". A tremendous play on words makes "La Canterina" a complete farce and gives the appearance of an 
action which is in fact non-existant. The music alone makes out of the parody a burlesque play built up around 
the moods of the gifted but unbelievably spoilt singer Gasparina. It corresponds in the main with the high- 



*) Autograph in the Esterhâzy Archives, Budapest 



15 



flown style of the Opera seria. The work begins at first in the style of the Opera bufia without an overture — 
for it is an Intermezzo 2 ). The melodies hardly distinguish themselves from the imported Italian manner. [Ex. 3], 



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The second scene, however, shows essentially new moments. It is an accompagnato recitative with much 
music and few words, characterising the impetuous lover of Gasparina in the forceful style of the young sym- 
phonist Haydn [Ex. 4]. This early creation already shows the free manner in which Haydn uses the outward 




form of the Italian opera for his own special purposes. Above all in the final phase of the first quartet, which is 
anything but a movement furthering the actual action, Haydn shows his fascination with purely instrumen- 
tal efforts. The action is developed purely from the musical side. The parts also lack development in the 
dramatic and psychological sense. They are not played out against each other — they merely act as ex- 
pected from the beginning. The musical peak of the small work is the aria in C minor sung by Gasparina 
in the second act. The oboes are here replaced by English horns, which give the aria a peculiarly dissimulated 

2 ) Possibly an overture did exist, but, in any case, it is lacking in the original MS. 



16 




An opera performance in Esierhâza. On the basis of the stage settings and costumes, it is believed to be the last act of Haydn's 

dramma giocoso, "L'incontro improvviso" (1775). At the cembalo is Haydn. Reading from Haydn's score are a cello player and 

two bass players; a bassoon player is in their midst (back facing audience). The other musicians able to be seen are (ca.) five first violins, 

five second violins, three violas and two oboes. (Oil painting in possession of V. E. Pollak, Vienna.) 



air. In his later operas Haydn also likes to avail himself of these means of expression. One would almost take 
this aria wholly seriously if it were not for the farsical trend which goes on throughout the whole piece 
[Ex. 5]. Also the following accompagnato recitative of Don Pelagio makes use of Neapolitan elements of style; 

{5) Allegro di molto 



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yet it belongs to the parody, for neither the Opera butia nor the Intermezzo knew, in their stage of develop- 
ment of that time, the orchestral recitative, and especially not to such a sentimental extent [Ex. 6]. 



(6) Adagio 



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This parodie, and therefore negative attitude towards the theme, advances Haydn by one step, i. e. the 
step towards the Opera butia itself, which was to determine his work for the stage throughout the next fifteen 



17 



years. Haydn's actual and really serious operatic activity commences with the opera "Lo Speziale" 
[1768] 1 ). The theme deals with human society and with the world of the theatre. The text was written by Carlo 
Goldoni, the greatest Italian author of comedies in the 18th century and is a so-called middle-class comedy. 
The characters of the piece are taken out of the everyday life; they are realistic embodiments of human frail- 
ties, which, of course, seem exaggerated, but which are suitably purged with the aid of the music. These 
frailties are especially brightly and humourously represented in the arias. Here, Haydn already shows what 
he has learned from the Italian masters. The arias in the buffo operas have no established form; they are 
adapted to the type being represented. Thus, a tremendous scope for changes is given when producing 
the work. Haydn's "Apothecary" is musically very charming in its looseness. Arias and recitatives relieve each 
other without the necessity for sudden scenic cuts. Already we can talk about thoroughly organized action. The 
old apothecary, Sempronio, desiring to marry his ward, Griletta, has two young rivals, of which one, Mengone, 
posing as apothecary, is employed in the dispensary of Sempronio. Although the introductory aria, sung by 
Mengone, avails itself of the treasure of formulas of the Opera bufia which was so highly developed by Galuppi 
and Piccini, it is written throughout in a personal style. One is automatically led to think of Mozart's 
Leporello when hearing this aria [Ex. 7]. This impression is only strengthened by a second aria [Ex. 8]. The 



(Allegro ?) 



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18 



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figure of the second rival, Volpino (little fox), is an exceptionally nice part for soprano. In the first act, 
Volpino sings an expressive aria in G minor, which closely resembles the Neapolitan "vengeance aria", and 
has here, of course, a parodistic function [Ex. 9]. The aria in the third act, too, is not to be taken seriously. 



(9) Presto 



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Dressed up as Turk, he, of course, sings in a Turkish manner. We will also find an "alia turca" in Haydn's 
later opera, "L'Incontro improvviso". 

The old Sempronio, who is being fooled by Grilletta, Mengone and Volpino, and who finally loses the 



2* 



19 



girl to the would-be apothecary, is masterly characterised by Haydn [Ex. 10]. Haydn has made further progress 



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in the ensemble art. In contradistinction to "La Canterina", the final phase of the second act of the "Apothe- 
cary", represents the peak of the action in a scene with the Notary Public. It is a type of variation-rondo with 
a presto appended, of which there is an abundance in the Opera butfa. The contradictions are very clearly 
drawn. In the first part of the finale, Sempronio, the old fool, comes on the stage with what he thinks are the 
notaries, who, with the most respectable expression on their faces, begin to draw up the marriage contract. 
The orchestra accompanies this with a "writing motif" [Ex. 11]. It is the typical comic situation of the Opera 



un Un poco adagio 



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20 



buff a. The orchestra underlines the atmosphere with small but very plastic motives which show Haydn in the 
full height of the buffo technique of his time. 

The matter is a totally different one in the case of the succeeding opera "Le Pescatrici [1769] 1 ) which 
likewise goes back to Carlo Goldoni. The musical language becomes more characteristic and the structure 
more independent of the Italian pattern. For the first time the "parte série" appear in the Opera buff a by 
Haydn. These are serious parts, which belong to the achievements of the Opera buffa, dating back to the second 
part of the 18th century. The text at first shows Count Lindoro, as the only serious part, and we learn only 
from the music that Eurilda is his female counter part. Lindoro, who is looking for Eurilda, but cannot find her 
among the girls, organises an examination, where the "fisher" girls Nerina and Lesbina also take part. These, 
of course, make themselves immediately conspicuous by their tremendous exaggerations and megalomania. An 
important change has taken place in the whole constellation. With Goldoni, the criticism practised on society 
has no important part. Haydn, however, emphasizes the difference with his music. The serious partners are no 
longer dolls, the original of which can be found in the Opera seria, but real persons whom one feels are alive, 
and who influence the course of the action. Unfortunately only the prelude has been preserved from the first 
aria of Eurilda [Ex. 12]. But this is the key whereby we recognize her true position in the drama, enabling 



U2) Andante grazioso 




us to distinguish her from the other female parts. Her nominal father, Mastricco, is no longer (as in the 
"Apothecary") the marriage-mad guardian, but a wise man who contemplates life from the experience of his 



*) Autograph in the Esterhâzy Archives, Budapest. 



21 



age [Ex. 13]. The surrounding becomes a part of the opera which must not be underestimated. The period of 
(B) Adagio 



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the musical "Storm and Stress", which was beginning to close, and which brings about a proper crisis in all 
spheres of Haydn's composition, begins to throw its first shadow 1 ). This new attitude was also brought about 
by Haydn's probable studies of modern literature, the fruits of which are the music to Goethe's "Gôtz von Ber- 
lichingen", which is unfortunately lost to us, and the dramatic music to the re-discovered Shakespeare, which 
has also disappeared 2 ). In "Le Pescatrici", we find at first only hints of this new spirit. The Introduzione, desi- 
gnated as "Coro", in reality, however, only a quartet formed by the comic parts, introduces the rustic atmo- 
sphere [Ex. 14]. Various ensembles enliven the three acts of the piece. The ombra scene — the invoking of 

@ Allegro 



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the shadows — has its origin in the Opera seria. The basic idea of all this is again parodie, as in "La Can- 
terina"; however, the production has taken on much finer forms. In accordance with the old usage, the scene 



*) One notices similar tendencies in the Sinfonia Lamentatione (ca. 1768), the Sinfonia La Passione (1768), Symphony No. 34 
(D minor), etc. 

2 ) Hamlet, King Lear (the music to King Lear attributed to Haydn is doubtful and appears to be by the contemporary composer, 
W. Stegmann). 



22 



is in E flat major, and the English horns again replace the oboes, determining, together with the horns, the 
lyric tone of the wind instruments [Ex. 15]. 



(g) Andante Oreh. 



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This new attitude, which is announced here, is consolidated in "L'Infedeltà delusa", composed in 1773 1 ). 
This is linked in a great chain with the opera "La vera Costanza", which approaches the tragic. This group is 
rightly designated the "Storm and Stress" period of Haydn's creative activity for the stage. It runs parallel 
with the development of the symphonic form right to the Paris symphonies [Nos. 82 — 87] and the string 
quartet up to the so-called "Russian quartets" op. 33. "L'Infedeltà delusa", termed Burletta, deals with 
the conflict between father and daughter. The father wishes to marry his daughter Sandrina to a rich hus- 
band in order to profit by this match, whereas the girl has set her heart on a poor peasant lad. As the sister 
of the poor lad loves the man who is intended for Sandrina, she tries to get out of it with the help of intrigues 
and masquerading comedies. While it was the aristocracy and the middle class in "Le Pescatrici", it is here 
the poor and the rich within the middle class which are played against each other. The ensemble in this opera 
plays a still greater part than in the preceding works. 

Even the introduction seems to give impulse to the action. It begins in a pastoral fashion and is obviously 
very close to the Opera seria [Ex. 16]. After this lyrical introduction, Sandrina, the principal female part, appears. 

© 



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bel 



la se • ra 



ed au • ra gTa - ta 



*) Autograph in the Esterhâzy Archives, Budapest. 



23 



The contrast between father and daughter is the dramatic exposition. Here, Haydn changes the grouping of the 
singers. Old Filippo, Sandrina's father, is the tenor. The same voice is required of the man, whom the father desires 
as son-in-law, whereas Sandrina's choice is a baritone. This externally underlines the solidarity of the partners. 
Haydn masterly describes in the arias the easy going mood of the father, but also his temper. Nanni, Sandrina's 
lover, sings an aria in F minor, which in no way denies its spiritual relationship with the Opera seria. At first 
we even think of the chorus of the furies from Gluck's "Orfeo", until we notice Haydn's parodical intentions 
[Ex. 17]. The appended F major movement in 6 /s time is written in the craziest butto-parlando and stands in 

© Allegro di molto 



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f=m 



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effective opposition to the gloomy F minor part in which Nanni assures, in a glowering rage, that he would 
rather perish than renounce Sandrina [Ex. 18]. A duet, which here takes the place of the otherwise more often 

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used "aria of vengeance", characterizes him well enough. One can imagine Nanni breathing hard with rage and 
passionately declaiming during a prelude of only three bars. His sister Vespina merely utters a frightened 



24 



"Parla!" in view of this violent outbreak, and tremblingly asks him what has happened to him. As she then 
learns that "his" Sandrina is to marry Nencio, they both swear vengeance [Ex. 19]. Strangely enough, Sandrina, 



@ Presto 




about whom the whole work revolves, hardly sings at all in the whole opera, a highly dramatic effect. 
Although the young Mozart has at that time not entered the circle around Haydn, it may be said that Haydn 
came very close to his later friend in this work. The whole opera shows Haydn's often denied talent for the 
stage, and this especially in the characterization of persons. 

Humanitarian trends, at first only carefully suggested, do not develop fully until in the next opera. In the 
Opera butia as a type they are not to be found. They are to be traced back to the influence of the French Sing- 
spieie which decided to face the problems of their time. Herbert Albert called the French Singspiele "the birds 
of storm of the French revolution". In 1764, the Singspiel, "La rencontre imprévue", or the "Pilgrims of Mecca" 
by Christoph Willibald Gluck was produced in Vienna. It was an early example of the humanitarian opera in 
the sense of Rousseau, dealing with the difference between the false world of civilisation and the generosity 
of exotic princes. Gluck's work, however, lacked the social-critical attitude of the pre-revolutionary period, 

25 



which was usual in France. Karl Friberth, who worked as singer and producer in Esterhaza, translated the 
French libretto by Dancourt into Italian and thus made a theme for an Opera bufta out of it. The French dialogue 
was replaced by the Italian Recitativo Secco. The adaptation also made changes in the cast. Not only the limited 
personnel at the court was of importance, but also the desire for a clearer structure of the action. Friberth 
was an exceedingly able and bright artist who was eager to work out the theme of the "Entfuhrung aus dem 
Serail" — for this is the real subject — without any secondary characters, if possible. Many a fine point of which 
Gluck made full use with precious humour is missing in Friberth's libretto, for instance the figure of the mad 
painter Vertigo, the first "original genius" on the stage of the "Storm and Stress" period. In the Friberth-Haydn 
version, the painter only plays an indirect part; Prince Ali, in the moment of greatest danger, dons a painter's 
frock, and places himself in front of a canvass, which by a happy coincidence happens to be there, in order to 
distract the attention of the guardians of the Harem, who were persecuting him and Rezia. This opera, which, 
shortly before the last war, was resuscitated from an unmerited oblivion by Helmut Schultz 1 ) with great suc- 
cess, contains a vast number of happy ideas. In all probability, Gluck's charming work determined Haydn not 
to economise with ideas. In spite of the associations with the Italian Opera bufta, Haydn's composition surpasses 
by far the contempory production, and if it would not be for Gluck's totally different manner of writing, one 
could doubt which of the two works is to be given preference. How carefully Haydn set about his work is 
proved by the secco recitatives, which the Italian composers, for instance, did not especially elaborate. There 
are a number of sketches by Haydn in existence in which he has consciously changed the recitatives. His aim 
for concentration on the essentials was probably in accordance with the adaption by Friberth, who often ener- 
getically condensed the talkative length of the French dialogues. Haydn, however, penetrates into the charac- 
ter of the parts to an extent which is, even for him, most extraordinary. He sets a series of various types 
of arias against the small types of songs of Gluck's Singspiel. Thus Haydn's "L'Incontro improvviso" is the first 
comic opera in which the most varying creations are equally united in one and classified according to purely 
musical and dramatic considerations. The well known opera intrigue is limited to the part of the lying Calender, 
a beggar monk, of whom Haydn makes good use. Serious and gay parts are mixed. The action, too, which was 
placed in the East, marks the new way which corresponds to Haydn's humanitarian spirit. Despite this, the work 



*) Piano score published 1941 by Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag, Leipzig. 
26 



remains connected with the aristocratic sphere of the Esterhâzys, with that super-refined culture which, by its 
tolerant attitude, was open to everything that was new. 

The special position of this opera becomes apparent through its recitative. The sixth scene of the first 
act is a wholly serious accompagnato recitative of Prince Ali, in which he gives way to his desperate spiritual 
condition. A longing motive of the 1st violin describes his loneliness [Fig. 20]. Accompanying the words 

(2Ù 



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"Povero mio core, tu palpiti?", a new motive commences which makes the sentiment ever more penetrating 
[Fig. 21]. Ali's thoughts turn to Rezia. In the allegro part, he shows his hatred for the Sultan [Fig. 22]. After 



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this, however, he collapses. The recitative fades out. For the first time, Haydn here succeeds in creating the 
phsychological deepening of word and scene. The individual human being with his individual fate replaces the 



27 



type — the master's presentiment of the Opera seria. "L'incontro improvviso" commences with an Introduzione, 
which presents the Eastern atmosphere in an impressive manner. "Calenders", the beggar monks get intoxicated 
on wine and tobacco, although the Koran prohibits them from indulging in any such luxuries. Thus the betrayal 
which their leader is to commit against Ali and Rezia is clearly motivated. This insult against the religious 
servants — an echo of the period of enlightenment — must not be underestimated. [Ex. 23]. In Gluck's case things 



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are completely different. His opera commences with a song sung by Osmin, Ali's servant; only in the third 
act he lets the "dervish" sing a sarcastic song on the stupidity of the people, who want to see real servants of 
Allah in the "Calenders". This song became famous through Mozart's piano variations K.-V. 455 [Ex. 24]. Haydn 

(24) Andante 



m 



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by far surpasses Gluck in the characterization of the parts. Gluck's serious figures still act very stereotyped in 
this comic opera. Heroic qualities of Prince Ali can be sensed in Haydn's work as soon as the recitative of 
the sixth scene; they become still more apparent in his two arias, especially in the aria, "Il guerrier", to which 



28 



the prelude gives an inspiring beginning [Ex. 25]. Here we can find something of the progressiveness which 




Weber's Hiion has in Oberon. Rezia, too, is more independent than in Gluck's work. Her moving aria in the 
first act reminds one of Eurilda's aria from "Le Pescatrici" [Ex. 26]. Completely in the Neapolitan style, how- 



@ Andante 

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ever, is her great aria in C major in which the triadal thematic content belongs to the favourite requisites of 
that time; but here too Haydn allows motives of the Opera butta to influence him. It is the ensembles which 
form the musical climax. To his most beautiful inspirations belongs the terzetto, which Rezia sings with her 
two confidants, Dardane and Balkis. It is the lyric echo of their joint deliberations about how to get in touch 
with Ali. As this is a kind of dream narration and Haydn selected the key of E flat, one naturally thinks of an 
ombra scene, all the more as the composer again uses English horns with French horns and muted strings. The 
terzetto, consisting of two verses, uses the three voices in the simplest but thematically most homoge- 



29 



neous manner [Ex. 27]. After this beginning the voices begin to move more freely. Rezia, above all 



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others, comes out well as a soloist. The otherwise very sparsely employed use of chromaticism plays a big 
part [Ex. 28]. A strictly thematic return to E flat major with peculiar figurations throws a veil over the beginn- 



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ing of the second verse. After this terzetto the lovers' duet must be considered as particularly happy. It is 
written in E major, which is unusual for Haydn, and represents, according to the ancient aesthetics, the key of 
"heavenly rapture". This duet represents the lyric peak of the opera. In contrast to Gluck, where the aria of 
Ali is the centre and thus reaches the highest sentiment in the longing of the prince, Haydn already sees the 



30 



fulfillment of the longing in the classic humanitarian sense. The instrumentation is very soft: muted strings 
with oboes, bassoons and horns in E. Ali's broad theme is taken up with a new text by Rezia. The piece closes 
on the dominant (B major), and the finale in G major follows immediately — a good dramatic idea, for the happy 
rapture is followed by a cruel reverse, which destroys all hopes for the time being. Tremoli in strings, synco- 
pation and diminished seventh chords underline the dreadful atmosphere which the news of the sudden return 
of the sultan produces. Naturally, Ali's servant Osmin, who peacefully continues chewing, appears when the 
general excitement is at its highest and gives the whole scene a crowning touch of grim humour. The servants 
of the Opera butta know at least one way out, and thus the second Finale ends with a frightened jabbering 
which does not exclude the hope for salvation. 

For the first time in a Haydn opera, the Finale of the last act is not treated as a matter of secondary im- 
portance, as was his usual practice; for this, too much is happening. Last but not least the treacherous beggar- 
monk gets his well deserved punishment. Of course the Sultan forgives the lovers, for as a man of "clean 
manner of thinking" he is rather under obligation to do so, and in a small duet scene, which is then taken up by 
the other singers, Rezia and Ali express their thanks again for the happiness which they had thought irretrie- 
vably lost. Of course one expects in an opera with such a theme Eastern music or at least airs which were then 
thought to be Eastern. C. F. D. Schubart emphasizes in his "Aesthetics" the pronounced war-like character 
of Turkish music. The French composers made rich use of these new musical possibilities. Haydn, who in 
some of his compositions had genuinely re-experienced the Hungarian and Serbian element, and had probably 
often heard the music of the "janizaries" in Vienna, gives hints of "Turkish" airs in the third act of the opera 
"Lo Speziale", although they are meant as a parody. In "L'incontro improwiso" the violins imitate castanets 
in the parts sung by the Calenders. The Turkish march in the third act, however, is less "orientally" effective 
by its instrumentation than by its theme [Ex. 29]. These experiments, however, by no means approach the effects 



@ Moderato 




31 



which Mozart achieved in his "Entfuhrung" or which Haydn achieved later in his "Military Symphony", written 
for London [G. A. No. 100]. 

"Il Mondo délia luna" (1777) 1 ) stands in sharp contrast to the previous two operas, but the critical brain 
of Haydn also rules this gay farce by Goldoni. This applies firstly to the secco recitatives. Buonafede, a precious 
name in view of what is to happen, has a longing for the distant: he wants to get to the moon whose key is 
E flat major. As soon as the topic turns to his favourite subject — and this happens very often — the modu- 
lation moves towards E flat major. His first aria is of a strange structure. It actually comprises a complete 
series of scenes. The scene begins with a secco recitative in which the bogus astronomer, Ecclitico, gives instruc- 
tions to his fake famuli to keep the telescope prepared for Mr. Buonafede. Now a ritornello for strings alone 
in D major begins, which reminds us of the andante of the "Schoolmaster" symphony written in 1774 [G. A. No. 55] 
with its captivating melody and its gravitational rhythm [Ex. 30]. That he has seen "something very beautiful" 



@ a) Sinfonia 



b) Opera 



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(i. e. the moon) is expressed by Buonafede in a short recitative and shorter presto. He continues to turn his 
telescope. D major and C major resound and the instrumentation increases in volume. Then he sees the moon 
quite clearly. The ritornello starts in E flat major. His longing increases. It takes effect throughout the Finale 
of the first act, likewise written in the key of his longing for the moon. In the adagio, the uncanny flickering 
movement of the violins can be heard [Ex. 31]. Buonafede believes himself to be near the achievement of his 



@ Adagio 




J ) Autograph partly in the Paris Opera, partly in the Berlin Staatsbibliothek and partly in the Esterhazy Archives. Piano score 
published by Edition Adler, Berlin, 1932, edited by M. Lothar. 



32 




A Recording Session oi Orieo in the Mozartsaal of the Konzerthaus in Vienna. 




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aim. He takes leave in B flat. Then he works up to E flat major, fails to reach it and faints. He is thought to be 
dying. Now the real fun starts, with questions concerning his last will and legacy and other jokes of that kind, 
until everything turns into the rather threadbare moral: "Who lives, lives; let the dead rest in peace." The 
musical peak of the opera is the lovely duet in the third act. The harmony is overshadowed by a certain melan- 
cholic element. The theme of the first part could be the andante of a Mozart Piano Concerto [Ex. 32]. 



(3$) Largo 



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Chronologically "La vera Costanza" 1 ) (ca. 1776) precedes "The World on the Moon", but musically and above 
all dramatically, "True Constancy" continues the chain of thought which began with "L'incontro improwiso". 
"The World on the Moon" is a happy interlude but contains little of the new style which Haydn was attempt- 
ing to create. Humanitarian and sociological concepts have the greatest influence here. The thrilling parts of 
the text are accentuated by the music. The buffo element is limited to a minimum, whereas the serious parts 
spread throughout the whole work. The history of the creation of this opera is not without interest. In 1776, 
Haydn was commissioned to write this opera for Vienna. In spite of the protest launched by the Emperor 
Joseph II., the performance was actually prevented by intrigues. Instead of it, an opera with the same title 
but by Pasquale Anfossi, which had been performed for the first time in Venice in the same year, was given. 
Haydn withdrew his work and had it performed in Esterhâza in 1779. Probably he was acquainted with 
Anfossi's opera. However, in contrast to the Italian master, who as a pupil of Piccini, took pleasure in spacious 
scenery, Haydn tried in advance to concentrate. Especially in the third act, scenery and music are concentrated 
to the utmost. There are, however, likenesses. The two arias of Baroness Irena are similar in key and character. 
These are arias in the Neapolitan style, purposely sung by persons of social standing. The thematic material, 

*) Complete holograph copy in the Paris Conservatory Library; sketches and fragments in the Berlin Staatsbibliothek. 
3 - 33 



too, shows likenesses [Ex. 33]. Much more important, however, is the part in the first act, by which we con- 

@ A f ■ 

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elude that Anfossi's work was not altogether unknown to Haydn. To the words, "Tu prendi in ogn'istante per 
mosca un elefante", Anfossi writes an impressive buffo motive, which turns up again in the first Finale with 
slight alterations. Haydn also makes use of this brilliant combination. In his case, however, the air turns up 
again without any rhythmic or melodic changes, built on the confusion of voices of the final part and influenc- 
ing the thematic structure of the other parts [Ex. 34]. Still more surprising is the fact that the structure of the 



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great scene of the count in the second act is completely the same in both cases. This scene was probably origi- 
nated by Anfossi, as the distraught character of it does not seem to be in keeping with Haydn's style. If we 
compare the recitatives of the first act, we can also find some similarities. These mutualities, however, are 
again contrasted by a vast number of differences, which can be seen from the beginning. Haydn amalgamates 
overture and Introduzione to one and thus achieves a very dramatic beginning which sets the basic key for the 
entire opera, whereas Anfossi commences with an ordinary Sinfonia in three movements. His Introduzione 
remains independent, more an illustrative description of the gale which dominates the introduction than the 
spiritual effect of the same on the acting parts. Similarity to Haydn could only be found in the orchestral move- 
ment accompanying the words of the Baroness. Anfossi, however, remains within the sphere of the buffo, even 



34 



in the aria of Rosina. Haydn brings human sentiment as an elementary result of spiritual need and despair into 
the foreground [Ex. 35]. The contrast is still more obvious in the difference between the two forms of the first 



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accompagnato recitative. Anfossi's quiet and careful transition from the secco to the accompagnato is contrasted 
by Haydn's more accentuated dramatic scene. The big scene and aria of Rosina in the second act likewise show 
far-reaching differences. Anfossi's E flat major is contrasted by Haydn's gloomy F minor, which he chooses for 
Rosina's outburst of despair. The Italian is aiming for an obviously clear interpretation of the dramatic situa- 
tion, whereas Haydn interprets the sorrowful feeling of loneliness from within. He considers the dramatic as 
a mirror of spiritual events [Ex. 36]. The difference between the two love duets in the third act is similar. For 



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Anfossi this represents the peak of the opera. He writes a piece in many parts with splendid orchestral support 
in order to bring out this significance clearly. Haydn uses the duet merely as an echo and a fading of a great 
preceding shock. They have only the key of B flat in common. 



3* 



35 



The development of Haydn as a dramatist, his progress from the primaeval sphere of the comic opera, 
also shows us the increasingly organic use of the final parts of the various acts. The inclusion of humanitarian 
and critical references to society results in the fact that the last "comic" operas contain more serious happe- 
nings than comic ones. Basically "La vera Costanza" is a serious opera, not an Opera seria of the old type, but 
a musical drama of the type of Mozart's "Marriage of Figaro" in which human claims are much more serious 
than at first appears. In the Finales of the first two acts the actors confront each other with the greatest con- 
trast. The principal motive, which Haydn follows up in this work with real sincerity, is the uniting of 
two lovers under disregard of social prerogatives. The first Finale brings out the two opposing couples. The 
composer has here the possibility to deepen the characters psychologically, and Haydn has made fantastic use of 
this opportunity in a way which we do not expect. The second Finale is grouped around a scene with a 
duet between Rosina and the count. Violent changes in key indicate the inner tension. The sung parts join 
freely with an continous orchestral movement composed out of several themes. An expressive "recital" often 
replaces actual singing. Thematic likenesses with the first act can be found as the count enters the scene and 
finds only the child instead of his beloved, for which he has been desparately looking [Ex. 37]. The formal 






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structure of this scene approaches the form of the sonata. It concludes in a Stretta, which reaches a canonic 
sextet and therefore no longer permits individual treatment of the various parts. Thus the two Finales have 
become the main supports of the problem in this opera. Here Haydn's spiritual relationship to Mozart be- 
comes apparent. None of the contemporary Italians succeeded in anything like this advance into spiritual 
subtleties. For Haydn this opera meant a new basis. He also applied the newly gained form in the following 
buffo operas [as far as one can still classify them under this heading]. In "La Fedeltà premiata" 1 ) composed 
in 1779/80, the approach to Mozart's manner of writing becomes more and more apparent. We only need to 

*) Autograph in the Esterhâzy Archives; Autograph fragments in Berlin, Staatsbibliothek. 



36 



look at an aria of Amaranta, written in the certainly rare key of B major [Ex. 38], The serious element 






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abounds here too. The opera closes with the death of Melibeo, a really evil character. Haydn's organic manner 
of thinking again asserts itself in this opera through the choice of tonality. Thus the second finale is in E flat 
major. This is also the key of the arias sung by the"serious" lovers, Celia and Fileno. As a dramatic figure, the 
bad character, Melibeo, is a mixture between Calender from "L'incontro improwiso" and Don Basilio from 
Rossini's "Barber of Sevilla". Melibeo sings in C minor — still close enough to the E flat events — and so 
reveals his evil nature. Thus Haydn brings the counterparts together by selecting his keys. Yet "La Fedeltà 
premiata" is hardly a dramatic piece in spite of the abundance of beautiful music. It is almost a produced 
fable. But its significance for Haydn's further dramatic development may not be underestimated. The 
regrouping of the relationship of the serious partners to the comic ones actually announces the final phase 
of the old Opera bufia. If the serious couple was hitherto taken from the ranks of the aristocracy, a simple 
shepherd couple replaces them here, and the buffo part is only represented by the insane count Perrucchetto, 
who can be taken for a precursor of the Knight Rodomonte in Haydn's "Orlando Paladino" (1782) 1 ). 

This opera has the subtitle "Dramma eroicomico", which was already once used by Salieri in 1772. The 
heroic-comic character is emphasised by the fact that there is not a single really serious part in this opera. 
In his Haydn biography Griesinger observes: "Haydn prefers to find the comic side of a topic and usually 
finds it easily." Nowhere can this be better applied than to "Orlando". The Roland theme was often treated 
in literature. Bojardo started in 1495 with his "Orlando innamorato", Ariosto followed in the 16th century 
with his famous "Orlando furioso". Since that time the narration of Angelica and Medoro enjoys a popularity, 
which was perhaps only exceeded by that of the Armida narration in Tasso's "Gerusalemme liberata", or 
the Orpheus theme. There are four Roland comedies by Lope de Vega alone. Handel's "Orlando" and Gu- 



*) Autograph (incomplete) in British Museum, London; Autograph fragments in the Berlin Staatsbibliothek. 



37 



glielmi's "Le pazzie d'Orlando", however, are the direct precursors of Haydn's opera. Handel's work, which 
was performed for the first time in 1733, is a typical Opera seria but surpasses by far the usual type of opera 
in depth of passions. Guglielmi again takes up the theme from the comic side without dropping the chival- 
rous note altogether. It may have been this amalgamation of chivalry and the grotesque comic element which 
attracted Haydn, if he was at all acquainted with the work. We know nothing about Guglielmi's opera 
having been performed in Vienna or Esterhâza. Still there are common traits, and even if Haydn never saw 
Guglielmi's opera, the librettist Nunziato Porta was certainly acquainted with it, for the sixth aria of Haydn's 
"Orlando" has the same text as the eighth, "D'Angelica il nome" from Guglielmi's work. Moreover, both 
arias are in E flat. Haydn, however, precedes it with a passionate orchestral recitative. Both operas end with a 
coro in rondo. A vast amount of heroic notes is struck in the opera. In places these even attain a great inde- 
pendency. Yet it is all intended as farce, as a parody on an overemphasised and therefore comic heroism. The 
subject is not treated in its reality. Supernatural powers are constantly interferring in the most farsical way. 
In Haydn's "Orlando Paladino" we also have something of the cynical superiority which gives Mozart's "Cosi 
fan tutte" or Verdi's "Falstaff" their mirror-like significance. We read it at the beginning of the last fugue in 
Verdi's opera: "Everything on earth is only fun and we are being made fun of". Deviating from Haydn's 
earlier operas, a great number of persons are acting in this one, and it is only this score which contains exact 
instructions for the stage. One can see the joyful eagerness with which the master applied himself to this 
thankful theme. 

A rich scenery is unveiled in front of the eyes of the spectators. The scene of the first act is set in a 
beautiful garden, the second shows at the beginning a lonely beach by the sea and in the Finale the cave 
of the witch, Alcina; the third act shows the Elysian fields. The last picture unites all actors in a small wood 
for the final chorus. The frequent change of scenery and numerous transformations are not only to 
enliven the action, but they are parodie in a double sense: Haydn pokes fun at the Opera seria and also 
persiflages the Viennese pantomime, thus creating the real basis for the comedy. Characters and situa- 
tions are drawn with strong exaggeration. All this, however, is united by a clever key technique which shows 
the progressive Haydn to be still the descendant of the Baroque period, despite his spiritual connection with 
Mozart. One can only call this highest artistic consciousness. Orlando presents himself in two principal keys: 
E flat major and A major. E flat major is his personal heroic world out of which his craze has sprung. But 

38 



by adhering to this key Haydn pokes fun at the hero in the second act, as he flees from the dragon of Alcina 
[Ex. 39]. However, the moment he comes under Alcina's power in the cave (this is of course brought 



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about by witchery) her key, i. e. C minor or C major, sets in, and not before he is again transformed to his 
normal state does Roland sing in E flat major, whereby he plainly shows that he is not yet cured from his 
craze. In the A major region he is easier to deal with and more practical, for this key belongs to the circle 
in which the passionately desired Angelica moves. A major 1 ) is finally also the key of the last rondo in 
which the cured Roland is returned to the world [Ex. 40]. 

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Madness when in love and heroism are the characteristics of Orlando. His counterpart, Rodomonte, is 
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*) One cannot fail to recognise the melodic relationship with the chorus of the Amoiini Divini in the second Act of Orfeo, 
written in the same key. 



39 



a duel with Roland in a quite unnatural rage. His main key is B flat major, which is also the dominant of 
Orlando's heroic key. Even the overture refers to him. It strikes the ironical note which is preserved 
throughout the opera [Ex. 41]. In the first act he suddenly rushes in the idyllic sphere of Eurilla and Licone, 



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again emphasising his own honour in B flat major, immediately after the G major aria of Eurilla. In the first 
Finale he also sings in "his" key. Only the second act he commences with a great aria in C major. This, 
however, has its reason in the fact that Alcina has transformed him by way of punishment for his fighting 
craze! He has his characteristic counterpart in the flute-playing Medoro, whose wretchedness is already 
revealed in the first finale. This poor lad is most unhappy in the second act. A recitative with the shepher- 
dess, Eurilla, who is to console him, is practically over-burdened with expressive material. However, in the 
moment of greatest despair Medoro sings just in Roland's E flat major, and with this beautiful aria (which is 
related with Tamino's picture aria from the "Magic Flute") he awakens our sympathy [Ex. 42]. Another point 

(42) Adagio cantabile 



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taken in advance from the "Magic Flute" is Angelica's suicide scene in the second act. Great unisoni in 
G minor, the lowest key in her scope, depict her uneasiness, her desperate search for Medoro and her 
difficult decision to renounce life [Ex. 43]. Of course the plan is not carried out. Medoro and Angelica are 



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linked together by the key of their main arias in F minor and F major. Otherwise Angelica moves more in 
the D major — A major region. This couple is characterised by a morbid sensibility and lack of vigour. 
How eager to live are, in comparison, the socially inferior couple, Eurilla and Pasquale, although they are of 
a completely different character. Eurilla is the fresh girl from the country; Pasquale is Roland's shield-bearer 
and servant, but in reality as frightened as a mouse. Yet his great C major aria which he sings in the second 
act has the effect of a diminutive of Rodomone's aria in the same act [Ex. 44]. The lover's duet in B flat reminds 

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us distantly of the Papageno duet in the "Magic Flute" and is, at the same time, Haydn's successful persiflage 
on his own lovers' duets which are preferably in B flat [Ex. 45]. The Deux ex machina trick is brought to life 

(45) 




41 



again with Alcina, the witch. (We are to meet it again in Haydn's last opera). Alcina must take care of everything. 
Completely distant keys are sought to depict the ghostly note of her appearance. Accompanied by ten bars of a 
"short horrible" Sinfonia in C minor, she comes to the top of the earth [Ex. 46]. Her key is C major or C minor. 



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She dominates the second Finale and forces everybody under her spell and above all Roland, which Haydn 
expresses with superior logic by his key-technique. 

"Orlando Paladino" terminates Haydn's activity in the sphere of Opera buffa and simultaneously repre- 
sents a peak in the history of the comic opera. And yet a tragic sentiment is hidden behind the gay mask, 
which the poet Jean Paul describes in Haydn's case as "like an expression of disdain for the world". The 
eagerness for new ideals can be felt everywhere, and "La Fedeltà premiata" and the heroic-comic "Knight 
Roland" are, with "La vera Costanza", nothing else but a step towards wholly serious opera. 

We saw that Haydn started his creative activity for the Esterhâzy stage with the Opera seria 
"Acide" in 1762. It was not before 1779, that is before having composed the operas "La Fedeltà premiata" and 
"Orlando Paladino" that he applied himself again to really serious opera. This last group comprises the 
works "L'Isola disabitata", "Armida" and "L'Anima del filosofo". With "L'Isola disabitata" 1 ) begins the struggle 
for a new fulfillment of the old form which, by then, was hardly fit to survive. Haydn took the text from 
Metastasio, the most important opera librettist of the 18th century. 



2 ) A tiny fragment of the Autograph was in the Cloister of Gôttweig until 1940. Otherwise the piece survives through an Elssler 
copy with additions by Haydn; this MS, in the Berlin Staatsbibliothek, is, however, Haydn's second version of the work, undertaken 
during the last years of his life for a projected publication by Breitkopf which never occurred. Of the original version there are 
various MSS scattered throughout Central Europe. 



42 



Having arrived with. "La vera Costanza" at a point which no longer admitted a separation between the 
comic and serious opera — one tends to think of a "middle class" tragedy in the sense of Lessing — "L'Isola 
disabitata" has the effect of limiting matters to a very small sphere of human life. Perhaps Haydn thought to 
achieve with this work a revival of the opera through the music, for the libretto in its intermezzo-like short- 
ness and lack of action seemed to create conditions which were particularly favourable for the musician. 
"L'Isola disabitata" was made into an opera by Bonno, Holzbauer, Jomelli, Traëtta, Naumann, Schuster, and 
Boroni — to name only the most important — before Haydn attempted it. The earliest adaptation to music 
known to us was that by Bonno. It was performed in Vienna in 1752. This opera follows the well known pattern: 
secco recitative and aria in changing sequence; a coro finally unites all the singers. Boroni's work first per- 
formed in 1775 is of greater importance, but without any extraordinary effects. Any influence of these 
compositions on Haydn seems impossible, and it would even be difficult to reconstruct any connections be- 
tween Haydn and the works by Jommelli and Traëtta, who are by far the more important composers. The 
lack of a dramatic exterior forced Haydn to shape things from within. The "operetta", as he called it in a letter 
to Artaria, consists of two acts. The overture in G minor gives in a reduced scale all the moods and emotions 
of the opera. It is of a symphonic nature and differs completely from the roaring Italian sinfonia. Through 
it we recognise the importance of the symphonist Haydn of this period, who was beginning to concentrate the 
results of his work. The theme of the allegro part, which stands in close connection with the introduction, 
shows a strict thematic structure [Ex. 47]. This is the only opera where Haydn does completely without a 



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secco recitative, following a trend which was started in 1731 by Johann Hasse. We can call Haydn's opera 
durchkomponiert similar to Jomelli's "Demofoonte", for even the arias have lost their usual length. They are 



43 



no longer "stations of sentiment" but carry further a development which has already started. In this opera we 
even have a type of Erinnerungs-Motivik which has nothing to do with Wagner's later motives which recur 
throughout the whole composition, but has its origin in the Opera bufia. In this connection one recalls the 
1st act of "La vera Costanza", which shows this method in a very impressive manner. Thus Costanza is sit- 
ting on the beach chiseling an inscription into a block of stone. A motif sung in A flat major expresses her 
spiritual conditions, and a subsequent suggestive motif accompanies her work [Ex. 48]. These two motives 



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are jointly executed up to the point where Costanza reads the inscription, thus bringing about an increase 
in the dramatic events. The motif in A flat major and this last part recur in the further course of the opera. Apart 
from this multimotivated structure, we have also the recitative based on one motif only. The second scene 
is a good example of this. Here we have only one joyous motif characterizing Sister Silvia and also affecting 
Costanza [Ex. 49]. It is exactly the child-like trait in Silvia which probably was the principal attraction for 



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Haydn 1 ). For this reason he followed up the development of that part of the opera with much greater care than 
he used in the case of the other parts. The arias of this work leave a somewhat discordant impression. Some 
show clearly their origin in the Neapolitan tradition while others continue the characteristics attempted in the 
recitatives. Thus the fifth aria "Come il vapor s'accende" is a typical example of the old simile aria belonging 
more or less to every Opera seria. The first aria in A flat major again takes up the key used at the beginning 
of the opera and continues the note struck in the recitative. In doing without the da capo ioim, we see Haydn's 
aim to achieve new results in order to surpass the accustomed pattern. The passionate counterpart to this 
is Gernando's delicate aria in the second act. In the great quartet Finale Haydn forgets dramatic tension and 
makes festive music. The overflowing joyousness takes on oratorical forms, pointing not only to his 
late works but equally to Beethoven's "Fidelio". Only the second part of this copious movement returns to the 
sad atmosphere of the preceding scenes. In this opera, Haydn does without detailed characterization. All 
parts are firmly established types which do not change or transform. There is no psychological development, 
as in the operas of Mozart, but merely a sharply- outlined embodiment of the characters to be presented on 
the stage. Silvia alone is placed outside of this framework, if only by the music. Already at that period Haydn, 
as a free artist, succeeded in presenting the highest virtues of general humanity to the society in spite of 
Metastasio's book, which, as such, is of little importance. 

Surprisingly enough, he again takes up the old form of the Opera seria in his opera "Armida", composed 
in 1784 2 ). The theme was taken from Tasso's "Gerusalemme liberata". Monteverdi had taken from that epic 
poem the duel between Tancredi and Clorinda; Lully presented the story of Rinaldo and Armida; Pallavicino's 
opera, "La Gerusalemme liberata", brings an amalgamation of both (the text was written by Corradi). This work 
was performed for the first time in Dresden and was presented in 1695 in Hamburg (also in German); it required 
a tremendous scenery. Handel's "Rinaldo" composed in 1711, text by Aaron Hill, lets us recognise something 
of the "unfailing character" behind the baroque intrigue, which was what Gluck demanded. The principal matter 
here is the end, the "lieta fine". This well-knit "musical drama", composed in 1755, ends with Rinaldo's promise 



1 ) In the original performance, Silvia was sung by Haydn's mistress, Luiga Polzelli. 

2 ) Autograph, mostly complete, in the Royal College of Music, London; Autograph fragment in Harvard University Library, 
Cambridge (Mass) and two Elssler copies, one in the Sandor Wolf Museum, Eisenstadt, and one in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, 
Vienna. 

45 



to return after he has absolved his military service, to which Armida replies: "Go and come back soon, and be 
assured that Armida will always be the same towards you." Concluding, the chorus sings: "May love never 
die — everything which does not bring about love must be flattened to the ground." A similar version of this 
pleasant decision can be found in Sacchini's "Armida" (in French). The work of the Viennese theatrical poet, 
Coltellini, is very important for the end of the 18th century. Salieri and Righini wrote the music to it, and Haydn 
also took over parts of the libretto. Coltellini brings us a sharper accentuation of the passions, which are not 
as strongly brought out by the numerous scenic effects in the compositions of the two Italian masters. Haydn's 
limited scenic possibilities and the desire for simplifying and concentrating, which he manifested already in 
earlier works, led to quite different results. The text book, which was printed in 1784 in Oedenburg and has an 
abundance of mistakes ("argomento"), gives the contents of the piece, in which it says: "The fable is well 
known, and if one or the other point has been altered, this was done in order to enhance the other theatrical 
effects." Alone from the fact that each scene has its contents stated separately, it can be seen how important 
the action actually was. Although Haydn again used the secco recitative in this opera, he reduced it to the 
absolute minimum. In exchange the accompagnato gains in importance. The overture is, as in "LTsola 



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disabitata", closely connected with the drama. It presents the split personality of Rinaldo, who is torn between 
duty and love. His aria in C major serves the same purpose. This struggle dominates the entire opera. In any 
case, Haydn draws the contrasts very sharply. The witch, Armida, sings in her first aria "Se pietade avete" with 
an expression which appears much greater compared with "La vera Costanza" and consciously brings out the 



46 



type of the Opera seria. In contradiction to Tozzi's work, produced in Venice in 1755, Haydn's Armida is fore- 
most human and a woman in love, transforming herself into a demon when she sees that she is losing 
Rinaldo. In Gluck's case, whose opera of the same name numbers among his best, Armida is mainly the witch, 
as the old text by Quinault (already adopted by Lully) demands. In this opera by Haydn the ensembles claim 
little space. The first act ends with a duet sung by the lovers Armida and Rinaldo, and the second act ends 
with a terzetto anouncing Rinaldo's final decision to abandon his beloved. There is no ensemble at the end of 
the opera, as this is only used with a "lieta fine". The whole third act deals with Rinaldo and his struggle for 
freedom. The terzetto in the second act is the peak of the opera, due to the sharp contrast in the principals. 
Armida, Rinaldo and his typically military friend, Ubaldo, all have their own theme [Ex. 51]. The structure 



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can be called symphonie in spite of all the drama. For the characterization of the parts, the orchestral recitatives 
are important, which in no way stop at describing but rather carry each sentiment through to its logical con- 
clusion. The enchanted wood, la selva incantata, dominates the entire drama. It is the atmosphere and the 
dangerous weapon of Armida. The psychologically simple nature of Ubaldo already knows in the first act 
how to get rid of temptations quickly. In Rinaldo's case it is different. He is still a hero of rationalism, who 
can only survive after having superseded all obstacles in long and lasting struggles. The enchanted forest 



47 



does not develop its demoniac power until the last act. Rinaldo is still unaware of everything [Ex. 52]. The 



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dramatic decision is delayed by idyllic phases such as the appearance of nymphs. Armida herself appears 
in order to enchant Rinaldo again. The conflict between morality and sensuality terminates in favour of the 
former. Schiller says in his treatise "On Tragic Art": "The tortures of sensuality can only be eased by 
morality. In order to envoke this with emphasis, the tragic artist must prolong the tortures of sensuality, which 
must also exist to make the victory of morality more difficult and more praiseworthy." 

The seven years which passed until Haydn composed his last opera "L'Anima del filosofo" brought him 
nearer to the perfection of his work as an instrumentalist. These years also strengthened his ties with 
W. A. Mozart. The storm and stress period died in the literature of the eighties. The ideal of a "higher reality" 
replaced the tumultuous extravagance. The unconscious and irrational was put in its due place in this new 
aim. In this sense Haydn's last opera approaches, at least in its music, the ideal of the classical drama. 



48 










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Orfeo e Euridice 







Uijinra» per Musiea 



rompoiio di 



GIUSEPPE HAYDN 



in Partitura. 



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3*iHe page 0/ file Breitkopf & Hàrtel score oi Orfeo. Example in the Gesellschaft der 

Musiklreunde, Vienna. 



THE ARGUMENT 

General. The text of this opera appears to have been drawn mainly from Virgil's 4th Géorgie, with 
some elements found in Ovid's Metamorphosis (Book IX and X). It tells the story of the love of Orfeo, the 
famed singer of antiquity, son of the River God, Oeagrius, and the Princess Euriidice, daughter of king Creonte. 
(Creonte's kingdom is not identified in this opera, but in other versions of this legend he generally appears 
as King of Thebes). Before the opening of the opera, Creonte had promised Euridice's hand to Arideo. The latter 
does not appear in the opera at all, nor is his identification clear. In the Virgil 4th Géorgie he appears as 
Eristeus, a shepherd who specialized in bee-raising. He was apparently an individual of rough character; 
according to Ovid he obliged Hercules to perform the twelve labors. Euridice was not in agreement with her 
father's plans, for she fled from Arideo's coarse attentions. It is at this point that the first act of 
the opera opens. 

Act I. Scenes 1/2. Euridice fleeing alone and disconsolate from the advances of Arideo, is discovered 
bewailing her plight on a rocky beach bordering upon a dark forest. She is about to enter the forest but the 
chorus (used by Haydn as a chorus in classical greek tragedy) warns her that the inhabitants of the forest 
are more ferocious and dangerous than wild beasts. In the aria "Filoména Abbandonata" Euridice says that 
she does not care. Even were she to be sacrificed in savage rites by the forest people, this fate would be no 
worse than that from which she had just escaped. She again attempts to enter the forest, from which 
the inhabitants emerge to seize her. The chorus calls for help, summoning Orfeo, who appears, and seizing his 
lyre, sings an impassioned aria "Rendete a questo Seno", entreating the forest people to give him back his 
beloved. His singing is so beautiful that even the hungry tigers are appeased. Euridice is rescued, to the 
amazement and joy of the chorus. The two lovers slowly make their way to Creonte's palace, while the chorus 
sings in praise of harmony. 

Scene 3. Creonte's throne room. Creonte asks his followers if anyone knows what has happened to his 
beloved daughter, who had fled from the palace. The chorus leader tells him of the events in the preceding 
scene, adding that Orfeo has saved the life of Euridice, and that she loves him. Creonte agrees to their 
union, although he would have liked to keep his promise to Arideo. In the aria "II pensier sta negli oggetti" 
he philosophises on the inability of man to be master of his own fate. The two lovers then appear, and ask 

a . 49 



for a father's consent to their marriage. The King gives them his blessing, and departs, leaving the two to 
sing the long love duet, which closes the act. 

Act II. Orfeo and Euridice are married and are found surrounded by a chorus of "Amorini Divini" 
(Baroque angelic figures, somewhat resembling cupids) happily singing in a pleasant flowery field. They are 
suddenly disturbed by a commotion off-stage. Orfeo leaves Euridice to investigate the origin of the disturbance, 
but while he is gone, an emissary of Arideo, who is lurking in the vicinity, attempts to carry off Euridice to his 
frustrated master. As she attempts to flee, Euridice steps upon a poisonous snake which bites her foot. The 
poison quickly does its deadly work, and Euridice, with her dying breath, sings the beautiful aria in E flat "Del 
mio Core". Orfeo, returning, finds the lifeless body of his wife, and in desperation sings the long recitative 
and aria "Dove quel Alma Audace". He throws himself upon the body of Euridice. 

Creonte then appears with his court, and when he is informed of events, he sings the great C major 
aria with on-stage trumpet fanfares "Mai non fia inulto". 

Act III. Scene 1. At Euridice's grave, Orfeo, Creonte, and the chorus mourn the death of Euridice. Virgins 
strew flowers on the tomb. Orfeo bewails his fate, saying that now that Euridice's eyes are closed forever, his 
world is dark. He goes away sadly and in silence. Creonte, expressing sympathy for him sings another philoso- 
phical aria in A major "Chi spira e non spera", in which he observes that he who despairs without hope is in 
a sorry state indeed. 

Scene 2. Orfeo in desperation consults a Sybil in a rocky cleft. In answer to his entreaties a spirit (Genio) 
appears, who, while advising Orfeo to take his fate philosophically, reveals to him, in the course of a very bril- 
liant bravura aria in C, "Al tuo seno fortunato" that he may attempt to enter the underworld and bring back 
Euridice to the upper world. The Genio accompanies him through the cleft, while the chorus "La Giustizia" 
tells Orfeo that the Gods are kind to him. 

Act IV. The scene represents both banks of the river Lethe, which divided the world of the living from 
that of the dead (the Elysian fields). As the act begins, a lugubrious chorus in F minor tells of the souls of the 
damned who must wait a hundred years before entering the Elysian fields. Orfeo, led by the Genio, appears at 
the far bank of the river and is about to cross it in Charon's boat when the Furies appear and try to prevent 
his landing. Orfeo's pleading softens their hearts, and Pluto himself appears and allows Orfeo to pass. A ballet 
and chorus of souls appear, among which is Euridice. The Genio reminds Orfeo of the condition imposed upon 

50 



him; namely, he must not look at Euridice until they have reached the upper world. Orfeo, stretching his arms 
behind him feels for Euridice's features. But Euridice, apparently not knowing the condition, places herself in 
front of Orfeo so that he cannot avoid seeing her. The Genio, sensing the impending disaster, leaves Orfeo to 
his fate. Euridice is once more lost to Orfeo, who sings a long aria "Perduto un altra volta", bewailing his fate. 
At this moment, a group of Bacchae (followers of Bacchus, who indulged in orgiastic rites, slaying all who 
opposed them) appear, and make advances to Orfeo, inviting him to join in their celebrations. Orfeo repels 
them with rough words, and announces to them that he forever renounces the pleasures of the female sex (in 
the Metamorphosis, Books IX and X, Ovid clearly states that after the second death of Euridice, Orfeo abandon- 
ed himself to homosexual practices, and thereby incurred the warth of the Bacchae who tore him to pieces. 
Haydn's librettist seems to have followed this rather closely). Angered by Orfeo's refusal, the Bacchae give 
Orfeo a. cup filled with poison, which he drinks. Orfeo dies in agony, while the Bacchanti go into a furious 
frenzy of delight. But a storm arises on the river Lethe, drowning the frenzied women, and Orfeo's body is 
borne upon the waters, to find rest on the isle of Lesbos. 



51 



L'ANIMA DEL FILOSOFO (ORFEO ED EURIDICE) 

ANALYTICAL NOTES 
by 
HELMUT WIRTH 

Joseph Haydn, Prince Esterhâzy's Court Kapellmeister, was 59 years of age and already celebrated in 
Europe when he first stepped on English soil in the year 1791. He carried with him not only a favourable con- 
tract to compose symphonies, but a binding invitation to produce operas for the Italian Theatre in London. 
As a composer of operas he had been silent for 7 years, in spite of the fact that his Opera seria, Armida, per- 
formed in 1784, had met with entire approbation 1 ) and had also been a success outside Austria. And now the 
good opportunity presented itself to him in London of producing a new opera in which he would not be restricted 
by the cramped conditions prevailing at his own Court Theatre. 

Like his previous operas the new work was written in the Italian language. He was commissioned to 
compose it by Giovanni Andrea Gallini (Sir John Gallini), once a solo dancer and for some years Director of the 
Italian Opera in London. His poeta locum tenens, Carlo Francesco Badini, who had lived in London for some 
25 years, wrote a libretto in 5 acts entitled L'anima del tilosoio. This somewhat mysterious-sounding title was 
merely a nom de plume for Badini's version of the classic myth of Orpheus and Euridice, a new version adapt- 
ed to the mood prevailing at that time. 

Not very much is known about Carlo Francesco Badini. We do not even know his biographical data. The 
British Museum Catalogue of 1881 enumerates a number of plays, part of which he had published under his 
pseudonym, Vittorio Nemesini. The libretto of L'anima del tilosoio seems never to have gone into print. We are 
therefore dependent entirely upon what is to be found in Haydn's not easily legible Autograph, the Buda- 
pest copy and the publication by Breitkopf & Hârtel. For some details about Badinij we are indebted to 
Mozart's librettist, Lorenzo da Ponte, who came to London after 1790, tried to gain a footing there and suffered 
in consequence from the effects of Badini's "evil eye". Da Ponte's Memorabilia and his correspondence with 
Casanova, insofar as we can give them full credence, describe the Italian theatre's domestic bard as an en- 



x ) Haydn noted then that "people call it my best composition up to now" [Letter to Artaria]. 
52 



vious, cunning individual, a contractor of debts, and a miserable quill-driver who shunned no means to get 
rid of those who were troublesome to him. Badini mastered the English language and possessed an all-round 
education, so, to quote Da Ponte — "he was often in demand by journalists to write articles for their news- 
papers, and because his views were accepted in London . . . the fate of an opera . . . depended to a very great 
extent on the verdict expressed in his writings". 1 ) It can be taken for granted that Haydn knew nothing about 
these qualities of Badini when he signed his agreement. He was only interested in Gallini's commission. He 
proceeded eagerly to set the voluminous text to music, but moulded the last two acts into one, thereby doubt- 
lessly enhancing the dramatic effect. He was soon able to tell his close friend, the singer Luigia Polzelli 2 ), that 
the curtain would go up on the opera towards the end of May 1791. But no favourable star shone on Haydn's 
last Opera! King George the Third suddenly withdrew from Gallini the Royal Patent for the performance of 
operas, and Haydn himself relates how he had hardly begun with the first rehearsal and got through 40 bars 
when officials sent by the magistracy prevented him from continuing. The performance of the opera was 
abandoned; but the salary agreed upon had been paid out to Haydn. His copyist wrote out certain sections which, 
in 1805, Haydn put into the hands of Breitkopf & Hartel. Fortunately, however, we are in possession of the 
almost complete score in Haydn's own handwriting. 

The librettist Carlo Francesco Badini was a child of his time. With keen perception for the growing ten- 
dency towards producing drama as "realistic" as possible, he wrote a libretto with the tragic ending which 
the Greek myth has taught us to expect, and which Claudio Monteverdi had, already at the beginning of the 
17th century, accepted for his version. But in the 18th century, the hey-day of the Opera seria, quite the contrary 
tendency was in vogue, namely, that every drama should have its "happy end". This lieta fine was a sop to 
the theatre-goers. Even the "re-discovered" tragedies of Shakespeare were, at this period, re-fashioned ac- 
cordingly! Metastasio, the most celebrated librettist of the 18th century, had once attempted, in his Catone in 
Utica, to end on a tragic note; but he later repented his audacious experiment and re-wrote the tragedy to suit 
current tastes. The Orieo of Gluck composed to Calzabigi's text ends with the return to life of Euridice, a fact 
that met with much opposition from his younger, more enlightened contemporaries. By the end of the century 
quite another wind was blowing. A new, deeper consciousness was making its impression upon humanity. And 

*) Memorabilia, Vol. 2, pp. 117. Publ. Aretz-Verlag, Dresden. 

'-) Letter of March 4, 1791. He informs Polzelli that he has "finished the second Act already . . ." 

53 



however insignificant Badini may have been as a libretto-writer, he was intelligent enough to swim with the 
tide. But custom dies hard, and he was never quite able to dispense with the fashions and trends of the older 
Opera, and his text-book may therefore be said to exemplify the problematical experiment of pouring new 
wine into old bottles. 

In a theatrical sense the myth of Orpheus is not really a drama at all but rather a simple lyrical tragedy 
calling for the most delicately careful of treatments. And whilst Badini, with his very limited artistic talent, 
could never attain the highest standards, Joseph Haydn, thanks to the artistic integrity of his character, was 
able to redress the balance in the most remarkable manner. His natural creativeness breathed life into the words, 
even in those sections where Badini does lip service to the fashions of the older Opera seria. Yet his contract 
signed with the London Theatre prevented him from attempting to have the work performed anywhere else. 
At the same time his oratorio work made ever greater demands on his attention so that it can be easily under- 
stood if his interest in having this remarkable work performed gradually waned. 

The cast is not large and, as far as soloists are concerned, the limits imposed at Esterhâza are not trespass- 
ed. Orfeo is a tenor, Euridice a lyric soprano needing occasional splashes of coloratura. Creonte, her father, 
requires a large vocal range from deep bass to high baritone. Then there is the boldly difficult part of "Genio" 
for a pronounced coloratura soprano, and some smaller parts which are reserved for members of the chorus 
after the pattern of Greek plays. The orchestra is fairly extensive and consists of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 English 
horns, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, drums, harp and string-quintet, in which the 
viola part is often doubled and the cellos and double-basses frequently play separate parts. But what captures 
our interest in particular is the uncommonly versatile treatment of the chorus, such as had never before been 
known in earlier operas. At Esterhâza no operatic chorus existed. One could flatly call Haydn's L'Anima del 
filosofo an "opera for chorus", because he never loses an opportunity of making the chorus participate in the 
dramatic moments of this opera, even in the guise of a spectator commenting on the action. The chorus can 
thus be regarded as one of the main pillars on which L'Anima del filosofo is built. The 3rd and 4th acts are 
especially dependent on the inclusion of the chorus, to which they owe their generally-accepted merit. 

An atmosphere of tragedy prevails throughout the opera. We are not yet aware of this in the Prelude 
which, in its main body, could ring the curtain on some Figaro-esque comedy. Only in its largo introduction 
do we get an inkling of earnest things to come. 

54 










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The two main themes of the presto section are quite playful in character, the second seeming to develop 
from the first rather than to answer it. The symphonic elaboration throughout the movement is altogether 
facile. The first theme is as follows: 



@ Presto 

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It is interesting to note that this theme, almost verbatim, is found in the middle of Orfeo's big aria in 
F minor, where it appears in the key of A flat major, and again in Euridice's first aria, "Filoména abandonata", 
although in the latter case the theme is somewhat altered. 

Such an overture could be the prelude to many a random opera, and not necessarily one of a tragic 
character. Undoubtedly Haydn had merely a festive introduction to his opera in mind and wished to withhold 
all dramatic conflict till the rise of the curtain, when one act after another passes before us with ever-waxing 
dramatic intensity. 

The tragic tension, the actual driving force behind this opera, hangs over the scene from the very beginn- 
ing. Already Act I starts on a dramatic note which bodes for us the impending tragedy. In a recitative* accom- 
panied by the orchestra Euridice tells of her frantic anxiety when she is near to perishing in the forest while 
escaping from Arideo, the coarse man to whom she has been promised by her father, Creonte. The atmo- 



55 



sphere of anxiety takes hold of those around her; it rises to an almost unbearable tension when the great first 
choral scene begins. It is almost as if the audience itself cries out a warning to the desperate Euridice "Ferma 
il Piede o Principessa" . Here lies the actual beginning of the tragedy. Even the choice of the C minor key 
indicates the tragic potent of things to come. This chorus describes the desperate effort to prevent Euridice 
from destroying herself. In tempo vivace the scene storms by. Tenors and basses sing partly in canto iermo, 
partly in imitational counterpoint, a long drawn out melodic sequence into which the lament of Euridice later 
weaves itself. She knows then that fate is inexorable and that there can be no escape. 



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And yet it is not the desperate dark warning of the chorus which saves Euridice. In a sudden contrasting 
change of mood, it is as if a ray of magic light had descended on the scene when Orfeo takes up his lyre and 
with a slow Arioso accompanied only by the harp and strings pizzicati, and by the "magic of his song", con- 



56 



jures away all the dangers 1 ). Euridice's father Creonte is also filled with restlesness and expresses his thoughts 
in a melodious aria in E. The melodic line in this aria shows Haydn a master of Italian Bel Canto and a 
faithful preserver of a great theatrical tradition. 



® [P] 




II pen-sier sta ne-gliog-get- ti da lor na-sceo-gni de- si - o son ti - ran - ni i no-stri af - fet - ti e van-tia - mo li-ber- ta 



In charming fashion flutes and violins weave their notes around this tuneful melody; yet its character is 
inherently earnest, especially towards the close where the double-basses join the conversation with momentous 
utterance. But the real climax of the first act is the duet between Orfeo and Euridice in which they give bliss- 
ful thanks to the gods, and where Haydn shows us his genius for putting words into a musical mould, transcend- 
ing all commonplace and revealing to us his radiant attitude towards life. 

This great scene is developed from the initial melody sung by Orfeo: 



57) Orfeo 



m 



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co - me il fo - coal-lo splen-do - re ate u-ni - ta è. 



l'al - ma. 



mi - a 



In Act I we are inwardly prepared for the events to come. In Act II the clouds of gloom and foreboding 
close in on the scene with ever-growing menace. A brief ray of light shines on the beginning when a chorus 

x ) The figure [Ex. 62a] etc. which appears in this aria forms the basis of the short chorus ("O poter dell'annonia") which follows 
directly, another example of the subtile interthematic connection between numbers abounding 
in this work. 



57 



of female voices sings a delightful, light-stepping, dance-like song of Amorini divini, the divine cupids, music 
still belonging to an idyllic, happy sphere. 



(58) Allegretto 




Fin-chè 



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sei nelT e - ta 

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taz - zadel pia - 



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S 



But the disaster hanging over Euridice's head can no longer be averted. She crosses the border between 
the Living and the Dead and recedes into the Realm of Darkness. Her big aria in E flat, preceded by a recitativo 
is full of character-laden melodic inspiration and is as valuably significant as the songs in Act I. Once again 
the melodic vitality of the strongly emotional Neapolitan School is revived. It is a conscious return to a mode 
of operatic composition already out-dated but in which a master of Haydn's calibre could still produce remar- 
kable results. (This is perhaps a favourable moment to mention Mozart's "La Clemenza di Tito" where the 
circumstances are very similar.) Another example is present in Haydn's aria written for Euridice in Act I, 
"Filoména abbandonata," which he had published as the first item in the abridged edition of the Opera. The 
vocal line of this aria, which Haydn provides with a choice orchestral accompaniment, reminds one of Johann 
Christian Bach as well as Mozart: 



M 



flfllJ jiiflzJ 



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me - Da ab-ban 



do - na - ta spar - ge all' au - re i suoi la - men - ti 



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58 



This dreamy lyricism is brought into vivid contrast with quite a different temper of musical construction 
when Creonte storms through his aria "ma non fa inulto". Here Haydn becomes the born symphonic writer 
and seizes on the opportunity presented by the text to make his orchestral score as turbulently fluid as 
possible, thus underlining in a descriptive manner Creonte's defiant attitude. 




But the drama reaches even greater heights in the last two acts. Though of less value when regarded 
separately, each act in turn gives the impression of working up towards the cataclysmic Finale. In the course 
of Act III, the chorus appears four times to commiserate and console Orfeo. A two-part female chorus, aug- 
mented later on by the male voices to a four-part chorus introduces Act III. It pronounces on Orfeo's bereave- 
ment but is no matter-of-fact declaration; it is rather an expression of heartfelt sympathy for the Thracian 
bard. 




59 



Act III is, however, of special consequence because of the appearance on the scene of "Genio". This 
Genius is, so to speak, the helper in need, a kind of "spare man" needed to give the drama fresh impetus. In 
the older operas he came to be known as the "deus ex machina". In Gluck's "Orfeo" he appears as Eros 
[Amor]. In the more tragic versions the question arises of what is to happen next. Euridice is dead. Orpheus 
bereaved and disconsolate. In a way the actual drama is over. But now the Genius approaches to bring the 
singer consolation and comfort in the guise of philosophy. Only now does the opera's title have meaning. 
The Genius sings a tremendous coloratura aria containing about every known technical difficulty and which, 
of course, hardly affords the listener much opportunity of understanding the text. This aria is created in the 
true spirit of the Neapolitan Opera traditions, a scintillating pièce de résistence for all coloratura singers but 
dramatically of lesser value. But the Master's knowledge of the Italian singing technique of this period is 
here fully demonstrated as well as his powers of expressing himself in the language of this brillant epoch. 
Here a rationalistic idea is, so to say, transfigured by song. Ex. 62 shows a typical coloratura passage from this 
aria: 



r%E fr iNr s&r to | rJ3 c £ # r ^ i atr ^iJ^^ p 



di co - stan 



EE S * " 



k*4 




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za e di va - lor 



60 



How all attempts to bring Euridice back to life prove unavailing, due to the inflexibility of the gods of 
fortune, and how Orfeo yields himself to resignation and renunciation of life is shown in truly tragic 
grandeur in Act IV. Already the opening chorus "Infelice ombre" gives expression to this atmosphere of 
inevitability. The music is in four parts, each voice, from the alto downwards, joining in at intervals of half 
a bar in stretto fashion, the voices throughout lying close together. 



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This demonstration of the divine will is even excelled by the demoniacal frenzy of the "Chorus of the 
Furies", sung only by the male voices. Penetrating harmonic contrasts help to emphasize the crushing power 
of these fiendish monsters, who approach Orfeo, and with diabolical, ruthless harshness convince him of his 
impotence. After the C minor chorus in the first act, this is one of the great climaxes of this drama, in fact a 
climax of Haydn's entire creative work. 



61 



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After this compounding of dramatic energies, the death of Orfeo takes place in an atmosphere of quiet, 
tranquil humanity. To die he chooses the poisoned cup which is offered him by the Bacchanalian priestesses in 
order not to subject himself to the use of force. He feels no need for consolation by philosophy because, for 



62 



him, life contains none. In his dying monologue all earthly scales fall from him. There is nothing theatrical to 
disturb his last moments and Haydn has no need of the big drum to express his thoughts. Orfeo's last words are 
spoken only to the soft accompaniment of the strings. 



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Orfeo is now dead. But the opera is not yet at an end. While the Bacchae prepare to tear Orfeo in pieces 
the voices of the Gods speak again. A terrible storm arises and the Bacchae, shrieking with fright, are 
drowned and the stage is left bare. The severity of expression chosen by Haydn to illustrate this and the return 
to the D minor key reminds one of the "Furies" music. Gradually the tide ebbs and the listener is left with a 
feeling of inward convulsion and emotion, but also with the conviction of having been a witness of a great 



63 



antique drama, even if a certain stylizatkm may remind one of the traditional Opera seria. In spite of the fact 
that Haydn was never given to philosophical reflections he may, whilst composing L'anima del hlosoio, have 
had in mind what Schiller later wrote: "Blind submission to fate is always humiliating and insulting to freedom- 
loving, self-determined men". 

Haydn's last Opera can thus be said to rank, together with his two last oratorios, as a living musical 
testimonial to a great epoch of classical art. 

Hamburg, December 1950 



[TRANSLATED BY ALFRED KITCHIN] 
64 




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From Haydn's Autograph of Orieo (p. 254); original in Preussische Staatsbibiliothek, Berlin, now Westdeutsche Bibliothek. Marburg. 
From the last part of the Finale of Act IV. The order of instruments by staves: horns and trumpets I timpani I oboes Î, II I flutes I, II l 
bassoons I, II / violin I / violin II / viola I chorus soprani / chorus alti / trombones I, II / violoncelli-contrabassi. Haydn notes at the 

top of the left hand corner for the copyist: tympan (i) and underneath 2 oboi. 



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A page oi the Budapest MS of Orieo in the handwriting of a copyist. In Haydn's handwriting are the words: Atto 2 do (Act II). 
The page shows the beginning of the second Act. Original in possession of the National Library, Budapest. 



ATTO I 



ACT I 



(SCENA I) 

(Spiaggia rocciosa all'orlo di una selva tenebrosa) 



(SCENE I) 

(A rocky shore at the edge of a dark forest) 



(RECITATIVO ACCOMP.) (ACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Adagio; E flat; 4/4; 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (E flat), strings. 



(Euridice entra in scena, smarrita e turbata) 

Euridice: Sventurata che fo(,) dove mi aggiro(?) 
Invan cerco involarmi aile mie pêne. Mille foschi pen- 
sieri m'annuvolan la mente ad ogni istante( r ) e cias- 
cheduno d'essi forma un atro vapor a me d'intorno 
che mi nasconde il giorno, e la ragion m'oscura. E per 
mia maggior sciagura( f ) il mio povero cor languisce 
oppresso fra le smanie d'amor nell'agonia di morte(,) 
e mai non more(.) 

(Vuol inoltrarsi nella selva) 
(CORO ED EURIDICE) 



(Euridice enters. She appears to be lost and frightened) 

Euridice: Wither shall I flee from my sorrow, sad and 
"wretched that I am? I am enchained to suffering. 
Vainly I strive to be freed! A thousand gloomy 
thoughts becloud my mind. They hang about me like 
vapour, hiding the day, darkening my mind. Most 
dread of all, my heart languishes, borne down by the 
pain of love into the agony of death, and yet T 
cannot die! 

(She is about to venture into the forest) 
(CHORUS WITH EURIDICE) 



Vivace; C minor (4/4 alia breve) 2 ob, 2 bass. 2 horns (E flat), strings, 2-pt. chorus (ten. -bass). 



Coro: Ferma il piede, o Principessa! Nell'orror 

queste selve(,) phi feroci delle belve(,) troverai 

abitator; 

Euridice: Deh per pietà! Lasciatemi! 

Coro: Ferma il piede, o Principessa! 

Euridice: Per pietâ! Lasciatemi! 

Coro: Nell'orror di quelle selve 

Più feroci delle belve 

Troverai gli abitator(.) 



di Chorus: Go no step further, Princess! In the horror of 
gli this forest, wilder than the wildest beast, those who 
dwell there wait for thee! 
Euridice: Have pity! Leave me! 
Chorus: Go no step further, Princess! 
[ Euridice: Have pity! Leave me! 
[ Chorus: In the horror of this forest, (etc). 



65 



Euridice: Deh per pietâ! Lasciatemi! Non voglio 

che me stessa compagna al mio cordoglio(.) 

Coro: Torna alia reggia( ( ) involati al periglio che ti 

sovrasta(;) pensa ch'infestar queste spiagge(,) mostrivi 

sembran le umane alme selvagge(.) Vedi costor che 

scendono dal monte. Fuggi(,) che rebelli noi siamo 

alia difesa. 

Euridice: Per pietà! Lasciatemi! 

Coro: Fuggi! Fuggi! Fuggi! 



Euridice: Oh, have pity! Leave me! I wish no com- 
panion in my grief! 

Chorus: Go back to the palace! Flee from the danger 
that hangs over thee. On these shores prowl monsters, 
savage beasts in human shape! Behold them, who 
descend from the mountain. Flee, flee! We stand in 
thy defense. 

f Euridice: Have pity! Leave me! 

1 Chorus: Flee, flee, flee! 



(RECITATIVO) ACCOMP. 



strings. 



ACCOMPANIED (RECITATIVE) 



Euridice: Che chiedete a me? Che mai bramate? Di 
quell'infausta pira ben riconosco il barbaro disegno(.) 
Già nell'Are d'amore(,) in solenne olocausto(,) arse il 
mio core(.) A nuovo sacrifizio di andar io non pa- 
vento(.) Morasi pur nella proterva 1 ) sorte (.) Pena non 
é(,) non ha terror la morte di semiviva amante, é facile 
morir col cor sperante(.) 



Euridice: Who calls me? Who desires me? 

I know the evil will behind this smoking pire; 

My heart consumes in such a holocaust. 

I fear no further sacrifice. Can prayer help me? 

I fear no death! Tell me, you who live: 

Is it easy to die with a hopeful heart? 



ARIA 

Euridice: Filoména abbandonata 
Sparge all'aure i suoi lamenti(,) 
E le note sue dolenti 
Mai non trovano pietà(!) 
Cosi mesta e abbandonata 
Spiego al ciel l'affanno mio 
E per me sol cresce, o Dio(,) 
Del destin la crudeltà(.) 

(Di nuovo Euridice vuol nella selva. Orribili forme setvagge 
la circondano per rapirla) 

J ) in original ,,prolava" 



ARIA: 



Adagio (4/4) Allegro (4/4)i 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (F), strings. 



Euridice: Philomena, sad, deserted 

sends her call into the night, 

that long lament, that piercing pain 

will reach no pitying ear! 

I, too, abandoned, tell the heavens 

my anguish. 

I, too, go forward to a tragic fate! 

(Again she tries to enter the forest; awful and savage forms 
appear. They surround her and attempt to carry her off) 



66 



(SCENA II) 

(RECITAT1VO SECCO) 

Un corista: Cieli! Soccorso! Aita! 

Un altro: Vieni(,) misero Orfeo, invola il tuo tesoro di 

disperata morte al fiero artiglio. 

Un altro: Per Lei! Che far possiam? Numi, consiglio(I) 

(Orfeo accorre, cercando Euridice) 

Orfeo: Euridice, ove sei(?) Che miro, oh Dio! 

Euridice: Adora to mio ben, Idolo mio! 
Orfeo: Fermatevi, crudeli! 
Euridice: Ah, difendi il tuo bene! 

Orfeo: Cara Euridice(!) Oh pene(!) Recate 1 ) a me la 
cetra(;) uditemi(,) infelici(,) délia ragion, délia virtù ne- 
mici(,) non men che di voi stessi. Qual insano furor, qual 
rio disegno puô mai disumanarvi a questo segno (;) 
in quel caro sembiante, in quelle vaghi luci tutti sono 
dei Numi i pregi accolti. E voi voleté (,) o stolti(,) la 
ferocia accoppiando a reo fallace zelo(,) al ciel sacri- 
ficar l'istesso cielo(.) A si malnato(,) a cosi vano in- 
tento ponga ragion il freno. 



(SCENE IT) 
(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

A corista: Help, ye heavens! Aid! 

Another corista: Come, unhappy Orfeo! Free thy 

treasure from the cruel claws of death! 

Another corista: What can we do for her? Counsel, 

ye Gods! 

(Orieo appears, running. He looks for Euridice) 

Orfeo: Euridice, where art thou? 

Oh God, what do I see? 

Euridice: My dear love, my sweet idol! 

Orfeo: Hold, cruel spirits! 

Euridice: Oh, protect your love! 

Orfeo: What pain, dear Euridice! Give me my lyre! 

Hear me! Unhappy ones enemies of reason and virtue, 

your own worst enemies. Tell me, what wickedness, 

what dread design has made you less than human? In 

this fair face, in these dear eyes is all the quality of 

heaven and its excellence. Ferocity and the zeal for 

wickedness and your blind rage would offer heaven 

to heaven itself, as sacrifice! May heaven put an end 

to such intent. 



RECITATIVO (ACCOMPAGNATO) 



ACCOMPANIED (RECITATIVE) 



Adagio (4/4, alia breve), B flat major; solo harp, strings. 



Orfeo: Rendete a questo seno il core del mio cor(.) 
L'Anima mia dell'insensate belve l'amoroso desio 
domar suole il furor. Le tigri istesse di sangue umano 
ingorde ai sospiri d'amor non son mai sorde(.) 



Orfeo: Give back to my arms the heart of my heart, 
soul of my soul! Even the ravening beast is tamed by 
the yearning of love! Even the tiger, sated with blood, 
is not deaf to the whisperings of love. 



67 



ARIA: 



ARIA: 



Largo assai (4/4, alia breve), Allegro, B flat major; 1 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (B flat basso), strings. 



Orfeo: Cara speme, alme di scoglio{,) 
Chi spiegar puô il mio cordoglio(?) 
Ah( f ) voi fate in un sol punto 
Mille morti a me provar(.) 
Euridice! Per pietà! Cara speme! 
Euridice, per pietà di mio tormento 
Geme l'onda e freme il vento(.) 
Nelle selve impietosite, 
Sento l'eco risuonar(.) 

(Le forme selvagge spariscono) 

(RECIT AT IVO SECCO) 

Un corista: O prodigio, o stupor(,) portento raro(!) 
Rozzi pezzi di ferro e cor d'acciaro dell'armonia celeste 
ha il sacro foco intenerito( F ) ed Euridice è salva(!) 

(Parte) 
Euridice: Nume de' miei pensieri(,) amato Orfeo, ben 
posso dir che la mia vita sei(,) se la vita ti deggio e i 
giorni miei(.) 

Orfeo: Se col mio canto i giorni tuoi salvai(,) con gli 
amorosi rai(,) co'tuoi 2 ) dolci sorrisi (,) co'cari amplessi 
tuoi(,) bella Euridice (,) tu rendi appieno l'animo mio 
felice(.) 

(CORO DEGLI UOMINI) 



Orfeo: O cherished hope! O hearts of stone! 

Who can know the fullness of my sorrow? 

A thousand deaths I suffer by your will, 

And in my ears their sound is like one cry. 

Have mercy! Euridice! 

In pity for my grief 

The waves do moan 

And the winds rage through the sorrowing wood. 

I hear its echo. 

(The savage forms disappear) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 
Corista: O great and wondrous portent! From heavenly 
armouries strong iron and heart of steel were softened 
by the sacred fire. Euridice is saved! 

(Exits) 
Euridice: God of my dreams, beloved Orfeo! Well 
may I say that thou art life to me! If life goes on for 
thee my days lighten. 

Orfeo: If with my song I keep thy life in light, rays 
from thine eyes, thy smiles, all they delights, from 
my life to thine, do banish night! Euridice, thy love 
brings to my heart fullness of joy. 

(CHORUS OF MEN) 



(No tempo designation in MSS) 4/4, C major, 2-pt. Chorus (ten-bass, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (C basso), strings. 



Coro: O poter deH'armonia(,) 
La favella deli Dei 
Ed il nettare tu sei 
Dell'afflitta umanità. 



Chorus: O power of harmony! Speech 
of the Gods! Freed art thou both 
from the pain of men. 



*) In MSS „Suoi" 



68 



SCENA-III 

(Sala nel Palazzo di Creonte) 



SCENE III 

(Hall in the Palace ol Creonte) 



(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Creonte: Ah chi sa dirmi dove il piede errante volga 
di questo cor Tunica speme(,) la mia figlia adorata(.) 

Corista: Confortati(,) Signor, l'abbiam trovata(.) 

Creonte: Ditemi( F ) dove? Oh Dei! Narratemi che fa(.) 
Corista: Dagli imenei dell'odiato Arideo Euridice fug- 
gendo( f ) in tenebrosa selva ed incognita piaggia ove 
dimora sol gente selvaggia(,) sventurata innoltrossi(.) 
Stavan costor intenti d'innocente donzella a far con 
crudo, e disperato esempio sull'altar délie furie orrido 
scempio (.) Euridice (,) mirando di sua beltade i singulari 
P re ggi(<) invece d'ammollir quei cori alpestri, più la 
ferocia lor rese sfrenata(.) Ne vittima più grata ne più 
degna di lei credettero agli Dei poter offrir(;) e il san- 
guinoso rito stavan per cominciar quando opportuno 
giunse il fleve cantor(,) 1'amico Orfeo (.) Co'suoi canori 
accenti in queH'alme impietosite, o maraviglia(,) destô 
pietade, e ti salvo la figlia(.) 
Creonte: Numi(!) Che ascolto (?) 

Corista: A caso tu desti a lei la vita(;) ma la virtù 
d'Orfeo(,) la sua possente lira è cagion ch'Euridice 
ancor respira (.) 

(Un altro) Corista: Essa in consorte il brama (.) Ai voti 
suoi oppor più non ti puoi(.) 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 
(Seated on his throne) 

Creonte: Ah, who can tell where the erring feet of my 
child have wandered? 

(The first corista enters excitedly) 

Corista: Be comforted, my Prince! By us Thy child 
is found. 

Creonte: Ye Gods, tell me where! Let me know all. 
Corista: Fleeing from the embraces of the loathed 
Arideus, Euridice lost her way. Passing through the 
dark forest, she came to the rocky shores where wild 
creatures gathered, seeking an innocent Maiden for 
their horrid altar. Beholding her, neither her beauty 
nor her loveliness could soften their barbarous hearts. 
Indeed were they more engaged. No victim more 
worthy or more welcome could be offered to the Gods. 
The bloody rite awaited: the altar smoked! Orfeo, 
friend, the heavenly singer, drew near. With his 
wondrous songs he awoke pity in those merciless 
hearts. Thy child was saved! 

Creonte: Gods, what do I hear! 

Corista: Your love gave life to her. Orfeo, with his 
sounding lyre, saved her from death. 

Another Corista: But she longs for her dear spouse. 



69 



Creonte: La mia real promessa ad Arideo serbare io 
pur vorrei(,) ma '1 destino résiste ai voler miei(.) Sven- 
turati mortali! Orgoglioso il desir impenna l'ali e in- 
contrar poi gli awenne(,) pria che giunga al suo fin( ( ) 
mille catene(.) 



Creonte: To Arideo I have given my royal word. I 
would keep faith, but fate forbids me. Unhappy 
mortals. Our proud desires take wing but, before they 
soar aloft, the end shall bear us down in a thousand 
chains. 



ARIA: 



ARIA: 



Andante, E major (3/4), 1 11, strings. 



Creonte: Il pensier stà negli oggetti(,) 

Da lor nasce ogni desio(.) 

Son tiranni i nostri affetti 

E vantiamo libertà. 

Cosi augel talor si crede 

Di spiegar all'aure il volo 

E '1 meschino, awinto al piede(,) 

Serba un laccio, e non lo sa. 

(Orfeo ed Euridice s'avvicinano al trono di Creonte) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Grazie agli Dei, sereno il cielo alfin per noi 

risplende. 

Euridice: Alfin risorge Talma opressa. 

Orfeo: II genitor s'appressa. 

(Essi s'inginocchiano) 

Euridice: Padre. 
Orfeo: Signor. 
Creonte: Sorgete. 

Euridice: II nostro amor ( ) 

Creonte: Non più congiunge il cielo i cori(,) e disunirli 
a noi non lice(.) Le tue amorose brame(,), i voti 
tuoi(. . . .) 

(Parte con il suo seguito) 

Orfeo: propizio il ciel secondi(.) Avventuroso il talamo 
ti sia(.) La tua félicita sarà la mia. 



Creonte: All thoughts grow from the senses. 

Desire is born from them. 

Tyrants are our affections! 

We boast of liberty. 

Like a chained falcon 

Who would take flight, 

Only to find that his foot is bound, 

We mortals know not our own chains. 

(Orfeo and Euridice enter. They approach the throne) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 
Orfeo: Thanks to the Gods! The sky is bright above us! 

Euridice: Our souls rise up in joy! 
Orfeo: Thy father comes. 

(They kneel) 

Euridice: Father! 

Orfeo: My lord! 

Creonte: Rise! 

Euridice: Behold our love (. . .) 

Creonte: (interrupting) The powers of heaven set you 

free to love. I smile upon your longings and your vows. 

(Departs with his followers) 
Orfeo: (to Euridice) The heavens shine down upon 
thee. The bridal bed awaits thee. Your joy is mine and 
mine is thine. 



70 



Euridice: Le nostre destre unite saran finchè le stelle 
spiranti(,) l'aure vitali a noi concederanno(,) Idolo mio. 
Orfeo: Ma saran l'alme unite oltre l'obblio, pria ch'io 
cessi d'amarti arderà il gel(,) saran le fiamme algenti. 

Euridice: Al dolce suon di tuoi soave accenti si dilata 
il mio core(.) Rapita io sono in estasi d'amore. 
Orfeo: Spiegare non ti pon gli accenti miei quanto 
diletta e cara a me tu sei(.) Dirti solo poss'io che senza 
te saria sventurata anche in cielo l'anima mia. 



Euridice: Our hearts shall be one while the stars give 

light, my love and my idol bright. 

Orfeo: Never shall these hearts know change. Frost 

shall burn and fire grow pale before I cease to love 

thee. 

Euridice: My heart leaps up at sound of thy voice. I 

am rapt in the joy of love's ecstasy. 

Orfeo: Even the music of my lyre cannot tell how dear 

thou art! Only know that even in heaven my soul 

would mourn without thee. 



DUETTO DUET 

Adagio; Allegro; G major (4/4 alia breve); 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (G), strings. 



Orfeo: Come il foco alio splendore 

A te unita è l'aima mia. 

Il mio cor dal tuo bel core 

Mai diviso non sarà. 

Euridice: Per me tu senti amore(,) 

Ne awampa l'aima mia(,) 

Il mio cor dal tuo bel core 

Mai diviso non sarà. 

Orfeo: Caro bene sospirato. 

Euridice: Carosposo, idolo amato. 

Orfeo: Caro nume sospirato. 
f Orfeo: Sento il nettare die Giove 
[ Euridice: Che piovendo in cor mi sta. 

Orfeo: Cari detti. 

Euridice: Dolci affetti. 

Orfeo: Io t'adoro. 

Euridice: Mio tesoro. 
f Orfeo: Ne la sorte, nà la morte 
[ Euridice: L'amor mio cangiar potra. 

Fine dell'Atto I ° 



Orfeo: My heart and thine, united, 

Burn with the splendour of fire. 

Never, through all eternity 

Shall they be torn asunder. 

Euridice: My heart burn within me 

Whilst thou lovest me. 

Never shall my soul leave thine. 

Orfeo: O beloved, so longed for! 

Euridice: O spouse so dear! 

O idol of my heart! 

Orfeo: O Godness I worship! 

Orfeo: I feel Jov'es nectar 

Euridice: Nourishing my heart. 

Orfeo: Dear words! 

Euridice: Sweet sounds! 

Orfeo: I adore thee! 

Euridice: My treasure! 

Orfeo: No destiny, no death 

Euridice: Can change my love. 

End of Act I 



71 



ATTO II 



ACT II 



(SCENA I) 

(Prato ameno vicino ad un hume) 



(SCENE I) 

( A pleasant held on the banks of a river) 



CORO D'AMORINI DIVINI CHORUS OF AMORINI D1VINI 

Allegretto, 3/4,- 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (A) strings, chorus (Sop-alt). 



Coro: Finchè circola il vigore, 
Finchè sei nell'età bionda, 
Bevi il nettare d'amore 
Nella tazza di piacer. 
Arrivato il gel degli anni(,) 
Tazza d'ostico licore porgeranno 
A te gli affanni(,) 
Ti daran le furie a ber(.) 



Chorus: While vigour holds, while youth is yours, 

Drink love's nectar from pleasure's cup! 

When weariness assails you, 

When the chill of age o'ertakes you, 

The Furies set a bitter draught 

To your pale lips! 



(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Adorata consorte(,) or io conosco che s'inganna 
chi dice che beato nel mondo esser non lice: è ver, che 
tutto è spasimo ed affanno(,) che un tenebroso inganno 
confonde e insieme oscura le menti dei mortali e la 
natura(.) Ed è pur ver, che il sole è il solo oggetto 
degno del nostro affetto(.) Or esso in te, mia vita(,) rad- 
doppiasi(,) chè sono due soli i tuoi bei lumi(,) Finchè 
sei meco io non invidio i Numi(.) 

Euridice: Dolce speranza mia, gli accenti tuoi sono 
stille d'ambrosia nel cor mio. II tuo labbro amoroso 
imparadisa il dolce mio desiro(,) mi rende al sen la 
sospirata calma(,) l'alma in cielo mi pone(,) il ciel 
nell'alma. 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: Beloved Consort! He deceives who tells us that 
no hope of happiness is ours on earth; that all is 
pain, that shadows hang about us and becloud and 
hide the sun. The sun we worship, naught for us 
more worthy! While thou art mine, two suns have I! 
Thine eyes, sun's rivals! While they shine upon me I 
envy not the gods! 

Euridice: Thy words pour down ambrosia on my 
heart! Give to my sweet desire the airs of Paradise, 
and in my breast the longed-for peace of heaven! 



72 



CORO D'AMORINl D1V1NI 



CHORUS OF AMORINI DIVINI 



Coro: Finchè circola il vigore, 

Fînchè sei nell'età bionda, 

Bevi il nettare d'amore 

Nella tazza del piacer. 

Euridice: Amar puô l'età canutà(,) quando 

Orfeo: l'aime amanti sono. Fido amor mai non si muta 

quando régna in mezzo al cor. 

Coro: Arrivato il gel degli anni( r ) tazza d'ortico licore 

porgeranno a te gli affanni(,) ti daran le furie a ber(.) 

Euridice: Dell'acceso mio desio 
Orfeo: Dell'affetto ch'ho nel petto 
L'onda stessa dell'obblio 
Non puo spegnere l'ardor(.) 
Orfeo: Mie luci belle 
Euridice: Dolce sostegno 
' Euridice: 
Orfeo: Amiche stelle( f ) che fido amor. 
Coro: 



Chorus: While vigour holds, while youth is yours, 
Drink love's nectar from pleasure's cup! 



f Euridice: When loving souls are faithful, 

[ Orfeo: In youth or age, love knows no change. 

Chorus: When weariness assails you, 
When the chill of age o'ertakes you, 
The Furies set a bitter draught to your pale lips. 

j Euridice: No waves of Lethe can engulf 

\ Orfeo: The love that fills my heart! 
Its passion and its fire! 

Orfeo: Dear eyes, friendly stars. 
Euridice: Sweet supporter. 
' Euridice: 

Orfeo: O friendly stars, what faithful love! 
Chorus: 



ADAGIO; VIVACE 



ADAGIO; VIVACE 



Horns from A to E flat. 



(Si ode un iiagoie nelle quinte. Gli amorini divini spaiiscono) 
Euridice: Mi tréma il cor(.) 

1 ) (Orfeo:) Che sarà mai questo strepito ostile al nostro 
amor(,) molesto(?) 
Euridice: Mi tréma il cor(.) 

Orfeo: Non smarrirti, o cara(.) DeH'importun fragore(,) 
la cagione qual fia(,) conoscere desio (.) Caro mio bene, 
addio(!) 



(A loud noise is heard offstage. The amorini divini scatter) 
Euridice: O gods, what do I hear? 
*) (Orfeo): What is the hostile sound that drowns the 
voice of love? 

Euridice: My heart trembles! 
Orfeo: Let me not loose thee, dear one. 
I must but know why these harsh 
voices cry. Sweet my love, farewell. 



x ) The Autograph erroneously notes „Euridice", but since thepassage is written in the soprano clef and since the Budapest 
MS notes „Orfeo", we have given these words to him ratherthan to her. 



73 



Euridice: E abbandonarmi vuoi(?) 

Orfeo: Del nemico la trama ad esplorar io volo(.) Per 

un istante sol(,) cara(,) m'involo(!) 

(Parte) 

Euridice: Cresce il rumor (.) Che sarà mai(?) Lo sposo 
io temo che non sia lento al ritorno(.) Nessun meco 
restô(.) Sola ed imbelle son costretta a gozzar 1 ) col mio 
periglio senza soccorso(,) oh Dio, senza consiglio(!) 



Euridice: Wilt thou desert me? 
Orfeo: I must know the plot 
of the dreaded enemy. An 
instant I leave thee. I fly. 
(Leaves) 

Euridice: I am numb with fear! 
Alone, with no protector near. 
With no succour in my peril! 
O God, without help! 



(RECITATIVO SECCO) 
(Un corista [Seguace d'Arideo] s'avvicina ad Euridice) 

Un corista: Ecco(,) Signor(,) la principessa è sola(.) Non 
ha chi la diffende(.) E'sicura la preda(!) 
Euridice: Che sento(,) oh Dio(,) chi siete(?) 
Corista: Sai che il tuo genitor ad Arideo la tua destra 
promiseO) onde di lei consorte esser tu dei(.) Invan 
fuggir cerchi(.) 

Euridice: Numi possenti(,) aita(.) 

Coro: Deh vieni(!) 

Euridice: Ahimè(!) 

Coro: Che avvenne(?) 

Euridice: Quell'angue(,) che cola strisciar mirate(,) mi 

punse in quest'istante(i) 

Coro: O sventura(!) 

Euridice: Nel sangue io temo che non m'abbia infuso 

suo féroce aspro veleno(.) Già sentomi nel core cento 

palpiti e cento armiti di terrore ch'assediano mio core(.) 

(// corista parte spaventato) 
1 ) correct: „cozzar". 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 
(A corista [follower of Arideo] approaches Euridice) 

A Corista: Here. Lord, The Princess is alone. 

No defence near. The prey is sure! 

Euridice: What do I hear, ye gods! Who art thou? 

Corista: Thy troth is pledged to Arideo. 

Creonte has given promise 

thou must be his bride. 

To flee is vain! 

Euridice: O mighty Gods, protect me! 

Corista: Come! 

Euridice: Oh, woe is me! 

Corista: What see we here? 

Euridice: The serpent that there creeps, 

His fangs did pierce me! 

Corista: Oh, wretched fate! 

Euridice: The subtle poison spreads troughout my 

veins! I fear! A thousand beats weary my heart. A 

thousand fears assail my soul. 

(The corista, frightened, runs away) 



74 



RECITATIVO (ACCOMP.) ED ARIA 



(ACCOMPANIED) RECITATIVE AND ARIA 



Adagioi 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (E flat), strings. 



(RECITATIVO) 



Euridice: Dovè l'amato bene? 

Sostenemi(,) oh pene! 

Come i flutti di Lete(,) 

Già l'onda mia vital lenta 

Si muore. Ah, mai più(,) sventurata(,) 

Non potrô rimirar il mio tesoro? 

Mabbandona il respiro, io manco(,) io moro(!) 



(RECITATIVE) 

Euridice: Where is my love? 
Oh cease, dread pain! 
Like the waters of Lethe, the 
floods have quenched my life's 
spark. I go slowly to death! 
Oh, wretched lover that I am, 
never again shall I see my love. 
My breath fails me! I fail, I die! 



CAVATINA 

Largo, 2 ob. change to 2 English horns (E flat 4/4) (alia breve). 

Euridice: Del mio core il voto estremo 

Dello sposo io so che sia(.) 

Al mio ben l'anima mia dona l'ultimo sospir. 

(Euridice muore) 



CAVATINA 



Euridice: The last desire of my heart is for my 
Beloved. To him I vow my last sighs! 

(Euridice dies) 



RECITATIVO (ACCOMP.) ED ARIA 



(ACCOMPANIED) RECITATIVE AND ARIA 



Vivace; 1 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, strings (D major, 4/4). 



(RECITATIVO) 
(Orteo torna. Non vede Euridice) 

Orfeo: Dove quell'alma audace, che cerca del mio cor 
la pace involare, il mio ben(,) l'idolo mio? Euridice! 
Dove sei? 

(Egli vede Euridice morta) 



(RECITATIVE) 
(Orieo returns. He does not see Euridice) 

Orfeo: Where is the spirit that dares to rob me of my 
heart's peace? To carry away my love, my treasure. 
Euridice! Where art thou, beloved spouse? 

(He sees the lifeless body ot Euridice) 



75 



Cara Euridice! Onnipotenti Dei! Che miro? Amata 
sposa! Ah! non rispondi? Oh Dio! L'ira del fato, il bar- 
baro destino, felice non mi vuole. L'anima mia mori(;) 
spento è '1 mio sole. Spettacolo funesto! Quell'adorato 
volto, che rendere solea ebbro il mio cor di gioja e di 
contento, divenuto oggetto è di spavento. 



Great Gods of power, what is this I see? O God, she 
answers not! An evil spirit has torn from me a blessed 
fate! My soul dies, my sun has gone out! O sight of 
horror! The beloved face becomes a thing of horror. 



CANTABILE: 



CANTABILE: 



oboe solo, strings. 



Délie vaghe pupille 
L'amorose faville 
Ah(,) dove sono? 
Dove sono i sospiri, 
I tronchi accenti, 
Dove gli amplessi 
Teneri, e vivaci? 
I dolci sorrisetti, 
E i cari baci(.) 
Tutto estinto è per me. 
Barbara sorte! 



ARIA: 



Allegro con spiritoj 4/4; F minor; 

Orfeo: In un mar d'acerbe pene 
Son fra turbini e tempeste. 
Ho perduto il caro bene, 
E mai più non troverô. 
Sposa amata, ah ch'io deliro! 
Questi son lugubri avanzi(!) 
Spoglie infauste, ch'io rimiro 
La consorte io più non ho. 
D'ogni gioja e d'ogni incanto(,) 
Del mio sol io sia privo: 
La mia cetra è volta in pianto; 
ma piangendo ïndarno io vo. 



Where is the light 
of love in those 
beloved eyes? 
Where the whispers, 
the broken accents of love, 
the passion and caresses? 
All, all is lost to me 
Hideous fate! 



ARIA: 

2 ob, 2 clar (B), 2 bass, 2 horns, strings. 

Orfeo: I am between whirlwind 

and tempest in a sea of 

bitter pain! Beloved 

spouse! I do see this 

tragic corpse, this 

lifeless body! Madness 

possesses me! I am despoiled 

of every joy, of every magic under 

the sun. The sound of my lyre 

is weeping and I go blinded 

with tears! 



76 



(SCENE II) 

(Sala nel Palazzo di Creonte) 
(Simile ad Alto 1 scena III) 



(SCENA II) 

(Hall in the Palace of Creonte. [Same as Act I Scene III}) 



(RECITATIVO SECCO) 
(La salma di Euridice é poitata in scena da parecchi coristi) 

Corista: Euridice (,) Signor! 

Creonte: Che fù(,) che awenne? 

Corista: Mori(.) 

Creonte: Stelle(!) Che ascolto(;) avverso fato(!) 

Corista: D'Acheronte saetta(,) un angue armato sferilla 1 ) 

nelle piante(,) mentre essa d'Arideo s'involava all'in- 

sidie ( ) 

Creonte: Dunque Arideo(. . .) 

Corista: Signor ( r ) co'suoi seguaci ei venne per rapirla(.) 

Creonte: E fù colui si audace? 

Corista: Anzi(,) di rabbia infellonito(,) ogni rispetto 
oblia(,) lagnasi che di fede tu gli mancasti, e par che 
fiamme e lampi vibri per gli occhi(;) e con orribil faccia 
la reggia(,) il trono e i giorni tuoi minaccia(.) 



Creonte: Veglia in difesa mia quest'acciaro che Astrea 
generosa donommi(,) e in un sol colpo ben saprà del 
superbo e reo nemico(,) s'egli non è più saggio( ( ) punir 
l'orgoglio e vendicar l'oltraggiof!) 



x ) correct: ,,ferilla". 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 
(The body of Euridice is borne in) 

Corista: Euridice, my lord! 

Creonte: What occurred? 

Corista: She died! 

Creonte: Heavens, what do I hear? Hideous deed! 

Corista: A snake, armed with the arrows of death, 

gliding in the field bit her, while she fled from the 

loathsome advances of Arideo . . . 

Creonte: Ah, then t'was Arideo! 

Corista: My lord, he came with his followers to carry 

her off. 

Creonte: He was so daring? 

Corista: Maddened in his fury and 

forgetting all respect, he declared 

that thou didst break faith 

with him. His eyes darted with 

fire and lightning, while with 

hideous face he now threatens 

thy kingdom, thy throne 

and thy life itself. 

Creonte: This sword, given to me 

by the generous Astrea, 

shall not rest until with one 

blow the proud and evil enemy 

is vanguished! And if he 

has not learned moderation, 

his pride and outrageous act shall be punished! 



77 



ARIA: ARIA: 

Allegro, 4/4, C major; 2 ob, bass (col Basso), 2 horns (C), timp (C-G), strings. 



Creonte: Mai non fia 2 ) inulto(.) 
Fulmina e tuona, 
Tuona e fulmina 
Cinta d'alloro la spada irata(.) 
Vista scolpito che non perdona 
Sorte nemiche l'offeso onor(.) 
Alla vendetta(I) S'odan le trombe(!) 

Clarini (sopra il Teatro) 

De miei campioni destar lo sdegno(.) 
Per ogni dove l'eco rimbomba 
Del mio guerriero giusto furor. 

Fine dell'Atto II 



Creonte: The angry sword, laurel-twined, was not 
of mine! The thunder and the lightning be avenged! 
To battle! To bloody revenge! Let the trumpets be 
heard! 

Trumpets (on the stage) 



Let my champions arise in their wrath! 
Let the echo of my warlike anger, my 
just anger, sound in might! 

End of Act II 



*) in Autograph: ,,fa" 



78 



ATTO ni 

(SCENA I) 

(Tomba d'Ewidice) 



ACT in 

(SCENE I) 

(At the grave of Euridice) 



CORO, VERG1NI ED UOMINI 



CHORUS OF VIRGINS AND MEN 

Andante; 3/4; E flat major,- 2 ob, 2 clar (B flat), 2 bass, 2 horns (E flat), strings. 



Coro: Ah(,) sposo infelice, perduto hai per sempre 

La cara Euridice, il core del tuo cor. 

La cetra che tanto arnica del riso 

Rivolta s'é in pianto( r ) è flebile ognor. 

Un nubile vélo le grazie nasconde. 

Son sparse di gelo le rose d'amor(;) 

Son chiuse le belle pupille amorose(.) 

Asceso aile stelle è il loro splendor. 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Al cielo te ne voli( r ) anima bella( r ) e sui vanni 
tu porti tutte le mie speranze e i miei conforti(.) Per- 
duto ho la mia vita, eppur io vivo del mio bel sole 
privo(.) Fra le ténèbre io sono e sol rawiso il mio 
destino reo(.) O mio costante amor, misero Orfeo. 
Creonte: Rugiadosi di pianto i lumi io sento(,) e mi 
pénétra l'aima il suo lamento(!) 

Orfeo: (piano) Euridice, Euridice (,) invan ti chiama il 
tuo sposo infelice. O voi(,) canori angelli(,) d'amore il 
sen feriti, o voi feroci belve, o fiumi, o fonti, o valli, 
o colli e selve(,) meco tutti piangete(.) Fate tutti délie 
mie notedolenti e^co 1 ) pietosa(,) e faccia ogni sasso(,) 
ogni scoglio rimbombar aile stelle il mio cordoglio. 

(Parte disperato) 
CoitK Ah(,) sposo infelice (etc., da capo). 



Chorus: Ah, unhappy spuose! Thou hast forever 

lost Euridice, heart of thy heart. 

The lyre that sounded with happy 

laughter is turned to weeping and 

sad songs. A maiden's shroud hides 

all the graces; the roses of love 

have left her cheeks. Her lovely and so 

loving eyes are closed. Even to the 

stars their light has gone out. 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: Ah, my love, thou hast soared to heaven, and 
wilt thou take with thee all my love and comfort? I 
have lost my life, I live without the sun. I wander in 
shadows. I watch my fate, my constancy, my love 
depart. O miserable Orfeo! 

Creonte: I see him marred with tears. I behold his 
grief, and his lament doth pierce my soul! 
Orfeo: (softly) Euridice, Euridice! Thine unhappy 
spouse calls thee! O sweet angels of love, behold my 
wounded heart! O ye wild beasts, o fountains and 
valleys, o hills and woods, all, all weep with me! Make 
of my sad notes a pitying echo. Every stone, every 
rock doth repeat my mourning to the stars! 

(He departs, desperate with giiet) 
Chorus: Ah, unhappy spouse (etc., da capo) 



1 ) Note in Budapest MSS. This word is misspelt ,,ecco" — correct „eco". 



79 



(RECITAT1VO SECCO) 

Creonte: Che sarà mai d'Orfeo(?) 
Corista: Misero amante(,) il seno l'abbandona(.) 
Creonte: Il è stupo che giunge il dispensato affetto di 
valor fedele a cosi grave eccesse(.) Chi perde il caro 
ben(,) perde se stesso(.) 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Creonte: Where has Orfeo wandered? 
Corista: Unhappy lover, reason has left him. 
Creonte: O wonder! How may such love, such faithful 
courage be doomed to such a fate? He who has lost 
his dear love loses himself. 



ARIA: 



ARIA: 



Allegro, A major 3/4, 1 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (A), strings. 



Creonte: Chi spira e non spera d'amar e gioire(,) e 
meglio morire che viver cosi(.) Raddoppia i suoi sensi 
gli incanti del core in grembo d'amore chi passa i 
suoi di(.) 



Creonte: Who lives and breathes but 
without hope of love loses himself. 
Better were it do die. 
He who spends his days in the arms of 
love, with heart enchanted, renews his life. 



(SCENA II) 

(Speco tenebroso) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Venerata Sibilla(,) tu che del ciel serbi gli arcani 
in seno, dimmi dov'è la sposa(,) quella che m'involô la 
sorte ria(,) Euridice(,) il mio ben(,) l'anima mia(?) 

Un Genio appare in iondo alio speco, con spaventoso iiagoie 

Genio: Se rimirar tu vuoi la tua consorte(,) segui con 
alma forte i passi miei ai tenebros(i) 1 ) abissi(.) Questa 
ti scorgerà a splendida face(,) un raggio di speranza(,) 
aile tue brame amica(,) in lei baleno(.) 
Orfeo: La speranza non è che una sirena(!) 

r ) Note in Berlin MS. Incorrectly spelled , , tenebroso". 



(SCENE II) 

(A dark cavern) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: O worshipped Sibyl! Thou who in Heaven art 

guardian of all mysteries, tell me, where is my spouse, 

she whose hand holds my happiness, Euridice, my 

beloved, my soul? 

(Amid a iearlul crash oi thunder, a Genio appears within the 

cavern) 

Genio: Follow my steps with stout heart into the dark 
abyss; there thou must seek thy spouse! To thy breast, 
o happy mortal, shalt thou clasp thine own dear love. 

Orfeo: Hope is but a delusion! 



80 



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From the Autograph oi Orfeo (p. '256), during Finale of Act IV. For further description, 
see above under the other reproduction of the Autograph. 



Genio: I gemiti ed i pianti non ti posson giovar(.) Se 
trovar brami efficace conforto al cor dolente della filo- 
sofia cerca il Nepente(.) 

Orfeo: Ah(,) la filosofia(,) se vuol farmi felice(,) al mio 
vedovo sen renda Euridice(.) O amore, o sposa, o Dio, 
mai più non ti vedrô(!) 
Genio: La rivedrai(,) se moderar il tuo désir saprai(!) 

ARIA: 



Genio: Thy laments and thy tears will not bring thee 
comfort. If thou seekst comfort for thy aching heart, 
it is only through Philosophy that thou willst reach 
thy Nepenthe. 

Orfeo: Ah, if Philosophy wishes to make me happy, 
Euridice must first be returned to my aching heart. 
O my love, my urge, o God, never more will I see her. 
Genio: Thou willst see her again. If thou canst mode- 
rate thy mad desires! 

ARIA: 



Allegro, C major, 4/4, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (C), 2 trpt (C), timp (C-G), strings (divisi violas). 



Genio: Al tuo seno fortunato 
Stringerai l'amato bene(,) 
Se tu serbi '1 core armato 
Di costanza e di valor(.) 
Chi creô la terra e'l cielo, 
Tutto vede e tutto regge(.) 
Ma l'adorna sacro velo(,) 
Cui non lice penetrar(.) 

(Da capo.) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Costanza a me si chiede? Ah(,) pria che l'amo- 
rosa mia costanza(,) che '1 mio ardor m'abbandoni(,) si 
spegneran le stelle(,) diverzà il sol di gelo(,) le té- 
nèbre splendenti(,) oscuro il cielo (.) La beltà che m'ac- 
cende invitto il cor mi rende (.) Per lei, per vagheg- 
giarla un sol intrepido ciglio(,) son pronto ad affrontar 
ogni periglio(;) non hanno orror per me gli urli feroci 
del trifauce mastin(.) No, non pavento l'Eumenidi spie- 
tate(,) il pianto eterno(,) la rota, il sasso, il voratro, 
l'averno(.) 



Genio: Your beloved will again be thine if with cons- 
tancy and valour thou steelest thy heart. He who 
made heaven and earth sees and governs all. But 
beyond the shadowy veil which covers her thou must 
not look. 



(Da capo.) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: Constancy, you ask constancy from me? Before 
my constancy shall fail, shadows shall hide the hea- 
vens, the sun shall freeze! The beauty that inflamed 
my valiant heart sustains my brave spirit. I am ready 
to meet every peril. The pitiless Eumenides, the ter- 
rible three-headed mastiff, the wheel, the stone, the 
abyss of hell . . . naught can affright me. 



81 



CORO: CHORUS 

1) Allegro, D major, 2/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (D), 2 trpts (D), timp (D-A), strings, 4 pt Chorus (S-A-T-B). 



Coro: La giustizia in cor regina(,) 
O mortale(,) ognor ti sia(.) 
Ti sowenga una divina 
Sola essenza di adorar(.) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Dove mi guidi(?) 

Genio: Vieni, vieni, non paventar. Del sacro alloro se 

non cingi la fronte, a te non lice di riveder la tua cara 

Euridice(!) 

Coro da capo. 

Coro: La giustizia in cor regina etc. 

(II Genio guida Orfeo entro lo speco) 

Fine dell'Atto III 



Chorus: Justice reigns in the hearts 

of the Gods! Thou mortal, it is 

granted to thee that the sun of 

thy life shall shine once more upon thee. 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: Whither dost thou lead me? 

Genio: Follow, have no fear! Only if thy brows are 

bound with laurel mayst thou see Euridice! 

Chorus da capo. 
Chorus: Justice reigns in the hearts, etc. 

(The Genio leads Orfeo down into the depths of the cavern) 

End of Act III 



- 1 ) Tempo indication missing in Autograph, supplied by editor. 



82 



ATTO IV 



ACT IV 



(SCENA I) 



(SCENE I) 



(Nell'Averno. Le sponde del Lete) (The underworld, on the shores of the river Lethe) 

Andantel) F minor, 6/8, 1 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, strings (vins, muted), 4-pt Chorus (S-A-T-B). 



Coro: Infelici ombre dolenti(,) 

Cento lustri varcar dobbiamo(;) 

Meste e pallide e languenti 

Senza mai trovar pietà. 

(Orfeo ed il Genio appariscono sulla sponda lontana del fiume) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Che ascolto, oh Numi(!) 

Genio: Queste son le voci funeste di Spiriti sventurati 
a cui non lice per cento anni varcar il cieco obblio(.) 
Ma seguimi(j) Caronte nella barca fatale dell'acerbo 
destino(,) anche a dispetto( r ) a noi darà ricetto(!) 

(Orieo ed il Genio s'inbarcano nella barca di Caronte. Le furie si 
precipitano verso la sponda vicina ed impediscono ad Orfeo di 

approdare) 



Chorus: Sad and mourning spirits, grieving, pale and 
languid, a hundred years we wander, ever seeking, 
never finding pity, for our grief. 

(Orfeo and the Genio descend to the far bank of the river) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: Ye gods, what do I hear? 

Genio: These are the ghostly voices of unhappy spi- 
rits! For scores on scores of years have they sought 
oblivion for their pain. Now follow me; Charon in his 
dread bark will dare the fates and give us passage. 

(Orfeo and the Genio step onto the boat. The furies rush down to 
the near bank and would prevent Orfeo from landing) 



CORO DI FURIE CHORUS OF FURIES 

Vivace, D minor 4/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (D), 2 trpt (D), 2 trombones alti, strings, Male chorus (Ten-Bass). 

Coro: Urli orrendi(,) disperati, Chorus: Listen! These are 

Qui si sente ogni momento shrieks of despair 

E rimbombi di spavento, that you hear! Great 

Che raddoppiano il penar(.) thunderings add terror 

Fremon gli orsi to pain. The bear's 

E i fier lioni ruggian( f ) rage, the proud lion'(s) 

E accompagnano i lamenti Fischiano i serpenti roar, the serpent's 

Ed il nostro lagrimar. hiss, join with our tears 

1 ) Tempo indication missing in both Autograph and Budapest MS, supplied after Breitkopf score. 



83 



Terremoti, orrendi tuoni 
Nella rea magion del pianto(.) 
Sono i tuoni e sono il canto 
Che suol l'alma tormentar. 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: O Signor(,) che all' ombre imperi(,) il tuo core(,) 
intenerito da quel foco a te gradito( ( ) dell'amor senta 
pietà(!) 

CORO (DI FURIE) 
(Le furie impietosite permettono ad Orfeo di approdare) 

Allegro, D major, 4/4 alia breve, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns 

Coro: Trionfi oggi pietà 

Ne'campi inferni(,) 

E sia la gloria e il vanto 

Delle lagrime tue(,) del tuo bel canto. 

(Pluto appâte tra le furie che si scostano) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Pluto: O della Reggia mia ministri eterni(,) scorgete voi 
per entro all'aer scuro l'amator fido alia sua donna 
amante(.) Scendi(,) gentil amante ( f ) scendi lieto e sicuro 
entro le nostre soglie(,) e la diletta moglie teco rimane 
al ciel sereno e puro(!) 
Orfeo: O fortunati miei dolci sospiri(!) 
Genio: O ben versati pianti. 
Orfeo: O me felice sovra gli altri amanti(!) 
(Orfeo ed il Genio scendono dalla barca. Un balletto di ombre 
entra in scena, fra di esse é Euridice, coperta da un velo) 



(BALLETTO) 



and laments. Earthquake 
and thunder echo in the 
darkness. These are the 
sounds and the songs that 
must torment the heart. 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: O God, whose pitying heart rules in the 
shadows, let thy heart be melted by the fire of my 
love. 

CHORUS (OF FURIES) 
(The furies take pity and allow Orfeo to touch land) 

(D), 2 trpts (D), timp (D-A), strings, Male chorus (Ten-Bass). 

Chorus: Pity today has triumphed in our darkened 
kingdom; your tears, your faithful heart, have won 
the glory and the prize. 

(Pluto appears among the furies, who cower and scatter) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Pluto: Into my kingdom, servitors eternal, guide the 
faithful lover to his spouse amid the dusky air. Des- 
cend, secure and happy, gentle lover! Cross our 
threshold! Where she awaits thee is a light serene and 
pure! 

Orfeo: O blessed are my yearning sighs! 
Genio: O well-shed tears! 
Orfeo: O happy am I among lovers! 

(Orfeo and the Genio land from the boat. A ballet of shades enters 
Among them is Euridice covered by a veil) 

(BALLET) 



Allegretto, D major, 2/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (D), strings. 



84 



(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Quai dolci e care note ascolto(!) O Dei del 
cielo(,) o sommo Giove( F ) ond'è cotanta grazia e tanto 
dono(?) 

Genio: Ecco la bella tua cara Euridice(,) a te sen 
vien per renderti felice(!) 

attaco subito il coro 

CORO: 

Allegro, D major, 2/4, 2fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 

Coro: Son finite le tue pêne, 
Ma( F ) se miri la tua sposa( r ) 
Perderai l'amato bene, 
Non tarai che sospirar(.) 

(Euridice viene guidata verso Orieo) 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Genio: Sovvengati la legge(,) frena i desiri tuoi(,) se la 
cara Euridice aver tu vuoi(.) 

(Orfeo palpa Euridice senza guardarla) 
Euridice: Dov'è lo dolce amato sposo(,) la soave mia 
speranza(.) Anche in ciel non io riposo, se mi priva 
del suo amor(!) 

(Euridice si mette davanti ad Orieo e si toglie il vélo) 

Orfeo: O sempiterni Dei(,) pur veggio i tuoi bei lumi(,) 
il tuo volto(,) e par ch'anco non creda agli occhi miei(!) 
Euridice: Dunque mortal valor cotanto impetra. 
Orfeo: Dell'alto don fu degno mio dolce canto e'1 suon 
di questa cetra(!) 

(Le furie s'impadroniscono di Euridice e la conducono via) 
Genio: Ohimè, che veggo(,) o Numi, giunto é il mo- 
menta reo(.) Tu sei perduto(,) io t'abbandono(,) Orfeo(!) 

(11 Genio sparisce) 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: What dear and gentle tones 

fall on my ear? O Gods of Heaven, 

o great Jove, from whom come down such 

graces and such gifts! 

Genio: Behold Euridice, beautiful and dear! She comes 

to bring thee back thy happiness! 

leads directly into chorus 
CHORUS 

2 horns (D), str., 4-pt chorus (S-A-T-B). 

Chorus: Your sorrows are now ended. 
Yet with one look on thy beloved spouse 
your love is lost again, 
and unhappiness will be thy lot. 

(Euridice is led to Orieo) 

(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Genio: Obey the laws, curb your desire! Thus only 
may you keep Euridice! 

(Orfeo touches Euridice with his hands, without looking at her) 
Euridice: Where is my beloved, my sweet hope? 
Without thy love I have no rest in Heaven. 

(Euridice places herself directly in front of Orfeo and removes 

her veil) 

Orfeo: O Eternal Gods, I see once more thy shining 
eyes, thy gracious face! Can I believe my eyes? 
Euridice: Man's valour then can win so great a prize! 
Orfeo: My sweet song and the sound of my lyre have 
gained this heavenly gift! 

(The furies seize Euridice and lead her away) 
Genio: Alas, what do I see! This is the fatal hour! 
Orfeo, once more thou art lost. I abandon thee! 

(The Genio disappears) 



85 



RECITATIVO (ACCOMP.) ED ARIA (ACCOMPANIED) RECITATIVE AND ARIA 

Allegro con brio, B flat major, 4/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (E flat), strings. 

Orfeo: Perduto un altra volta ho '1 core del mio cor, Orfeo: Lost once more to me is the heart of my heart, 

l'inima mia. Ah(,) di me che mai fia! Non mi veggo soul of my soul! All about me are the clouds of fear! 

d'intorno che nembi di spavento, la reggia del con- What shall become of me? Gone for ever is the king- 

tento è sparita per sempre; e in un istante tornata è dom of my joy! In the twinkling of an eye the reign 

la magion del pianto eterno( r ) ho nel mio cor l'inferno. of darkness is round about me. In my heart is doom. 

ARIA: ARIA: 

Allegro agitato, E flat major, 4/4, instrumentation as before. 

Orfeo: Mi sento languire, Orfeo: I fail, I die, 

Morire mi sento, my agony is sore! 

E il hero tormento O pitiless stars, 

Crescendo già va. proud stars, tyrant stars, 

O stelle spietate! why must such anguish be? 
Fieri astri tiranni(!) 
Perché tanti affanni(,) 
Si gran crudeltà? 

(Da Capo) (Da Capo) 

(SCENA II ?) (SCENE II ?) 

(Spiaggia rocciosa, come nell'Atto primo, scena 1) (Rocky shore, as in Act 1, Scene 1) 

Although neither manuscript contains any scene directions whatsoever, the divisions as well as the nature of each scene is 
clearly indicated in the body of the Text, with the single exception of the final scene. Haydn is, however, known to have stated in a 
letter to Marianna von Genzinger that the opera was in five acts, the last of which he stated, was "very short". On purely dramatur- 
gical grounds, a change of scene from the underworld to the upper world of mortals is indicated. For practical production of the opera 
a return of Orfeo to the scene of his first encounter with Euridice seems logical; it is included here with all necessary reservations. 

(RECITATIVO SECCO) (UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

(Orfeo solo e sconsolato) (Orfeo alone and disconsolate) 

Orfeo: Barbaro infido amore(,) cessar non vuoi di Orfeo: O cruel, false love, will 

lacerarmi il core(?) you forever tear my heart? 

(Un coro di baccanti si avvicina) (A chorus of bacchae approaches) 

x ) The Breitkopf score is marked only Allegro. 
86 



CORO DI BACCANTI CHORUS OF BACCANTI 

Andantino, A major, 3/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, str. Women chorus (Sop-Alt). 

Coro: Vieni, vieni, amato Orfeo, Chorus: Beloved Orfeo, come, o come! Be no longer 

Qui dolente star tu voi; sorrowful! Give yourself to us for love and pleasure! 

Deh(,) consacra i giorni tuoi 
All'amore ed al piacer. 



(RECITATIVO SECCO) 

Orfeo: Perfide, non turbate di più il mio afflitto core(!) 

Io rinunzio all'amore e ai piacer de'mortali(,) al vostro 

sesso imbelle(!) 

Baccante [furiosa]: Come(?) 

Cosa mai dice(?) 

Orfeo: Si(,) per voi devo trar giorni infelici(!) 



(UNACCOMPANIED RECITATIVE) 

Orfeo: False temptresses, cease to assail my sorrowing 
heart! Forever do I here renounce the love of your 
hideous sex! 
Baccante: [furious] What dids't thou say? 

Orfeo: Yes! Because of you I must live forlorn! 



FINALE FINALE 

1) Andantino, A major, 3/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, str. Women chorus (Sop-Alt). 



(Una baccante porge una tazza ad Orieo) 

Coro: Bevi, bevi in questa tazza, 
Bevi il nettare d'amore! 
Ti darà questo licore 
Ogni gran félicita! 

(Orfeo beve il licore, e si sente subito avvelenato) 
Orfeo: Ohimè! Che già nel seno mi serpe un rio 
veleno(,) sento mancar la vita(.) Il ciel s'oscura; finira 
con la morte ogni sciagura. 

(Muore) 
Coro: Morto è il Tracio cantore. 



(A "baccante" offers Orfeo a cup) 

Chorus: Drink, drink of this cup! Drink the nectar of 
love! In this sweet draught all happiness is found. 



(Orfeo drinks from the cup and is immediately poisoned) 
Orfeo: Ah! Already to my heart the poison creeps! Life 
leaves me! The heavens grow dark. All pain shall end 
in death. 

(He dies) 
Chorus: Dead is the Thracian singer! 



Allegro, F major, 2/4, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 bass, strings. Women chorus. 

(Le Baccanti diventano impazzite e vogliono fare Orfeo a pezzi) (The bacchae go into a mad frenzy and prepare to tear Orfeo 
limb from limb) 

*) Tempo indication, missing in MSS, supplied from Breitkopf score. 



87 



Coro: Andiamo, Amiche, andiamo! 

D'insolito furore 

s'accende il nostro cor. 

L'isola del diletto si para a noi davanti; 

ivi cerchiam ricetto, 

e non abbiam timor . . . 



Chorus: We go, friends, we go. Such pain, such fate, 
sets fire to our hearts! Have no fear, the isle of delight 
shines before us. There our shelter is surely found . . . 



Same tempo, D minor, 3/4, 2 A, 2 ob, 2 bass, 2 horns (D), 2 trpt (D), 2 trombones alti, timp (D-A), str. Women chorus (Sop-Alt). 



(Sorge una tempesta sul mare, con lampi, tuoni e procelle. Enormi 
ondate annegano le Baccanti impazzite di tenoie) 

Choro: Oh(,) che orrore! 

Oh(,) che spaventi, 

Oh(,) che fulmini! 

Oh(,j che tuoni! 

Cento furie in sen mi sento, 

Siam vicine a naufragar. 

(La tempesta si calma a poco a poco, lasciando la scena vuota ed 
oscura. La salma di Oiieo viene portata via dalle acque) 

FINE 



(A storm arises from afar. Lightning. Thunder and rain. Enormous 

waves envelop the scene as the storm reaches its height. The 

bacchae, frenzied with fear are drowned) 

Chorus: O horror! O fear! 
What whirlwind, O what 
thunder! Our hearts are 
encompassed with terror! 
We are drowning! 
We sink! 

(The storm gradually dies away, leaving the stage empty and dark. 
The remains of Orfeo are carried away by the waters) 

END 
(Translation copyright 1951 by HAYDN SOCIETY, INC,) | 



WELLESLEY COLLEGE LIBRARY 




3 5002 03505 5677 



Music MT 100 . H42 H39 1951 

Haydn Society (Boston, 
Mass. ) 



Joseph Haydn